By Hans Zappe
Featuring state of the art study into the dynamic box of tunable micro-optics, this can be the 1st booklet to supply a entire survey protecting a various variety of issues together with novel fabrics, actuation innovations and new imaging platforms in optics. the world over well known researchers current a various diversity of chapters on state of the art fabrics, units and subsystems, together with gentle subject, synthetic muscle mass, tunable lenses and apertures, photonic crystals, and entire tunable imagers. targeted contributions additionally supply in-depth therapy of micro-optical characterisation, scanners, and using normal eye types as thought for brand new suggestions in complex optics. With functions extending from clinical analysis to fibre telecommunications, Tunable Micro-optics equips readers with an outstanding realizing of the wider technical context via its interdisciplinary method of the realisation of recent varieties of optical structures. this is often an important source for engineers in and academia, and complicated scholars engaged on optical structures layout.
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Extra info for Tunable Micro-optics
1 Mechanical Attenuators One the simplest means for attenuating a fiber-based optical field is by micromechanically moving an obstruction into a gap between two cleaved fibers. 15, some of the earliest work in this area showed that this approach could yield attenuation of −57 dB with time constants on the order of 5 ms (Marxer et al. 1999). The inclusion of micromechanical latching structures (Syms et al. 2004a) allows maintenance of a stable attenuation state even when power is removed from the device.
2011). 6 An oil/water-based liquid microlens actuated using a hydrogel. The hydrogel in the water-filled chamber absorbs or expels water as a function of temperature, changing the pressure and thus the meniscus shape of the curved oil/water interface. From Dong et al. (2006). Mechanical Pressure Tuning A number of mechanical actuation mechanisms, with which the pressure on the lens liquid may be varied, have also been employed for tuning liquid lenses. One useful technique has been the use of hydrogels, part of a family of highly hydrophilic polymer networks which can absorb large volumes of water, thereby undergoing significant expansion.
The utility of tunable gratings using deformable substrates has been demonstrated by using Ag nanoparticles to render the nominally transparent PDMS reflecting and stretching the grating mechanically (using a high-precision stepper motor) (Ghisleri et al. 2014). 3 nm steps, the diffractive element was employed in a spectrometer to cover much of the visible wavelength range, 350 ≤ λ ≤ 650 nm. Another interesting application was the use of a grating with periods ranging from 1,000 to 1,500 nm on an 8 × 8 parylene membrane (Kan et al.
Tunable Micro-optics by Hans Zappe