By Duwayne R. Anderson
This booklet deals entire, state of the art information regarding time-domain fiber-optic trying out. Readers will achieve an knowing of the way to troubleshoot optical-fiber networks utilizing an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR), whereas studying the basic ideas underlying the operation of those strong checking out tools. From uncomplicated fiber optics and fiber checking out, to special event-analysis options, this booklet covers the full spectrum of time-domain optical cable try idea and functions. * in basic terms e-book to be had focusing exclusively on OTDR conception and perform * Covers the whole spectrum of time-domain optical cable try out concept and functions * Designed to be available to either engineers and method technicians * contains OTDR education CD
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Additional info for Troubleshooting Optical Fiber Networks: Understanding and Using Optical Time-Domain Reflectometers
The subscript refers to the mode numbers of the mathematical solutions. †Assuming degenerate polarization. 40 Fundamentals of ﬁber optics Chapter 2 Now that we have examined the V-parameter and the cut-off wavelength, let’s consider the mode or spot proﬁle of a single-mode ﬁber. Suppose we inject light into one end of a single-mode ﬁber and then cleave the ﬁber’s other end and examine it with a high-power microscope. What distribution of the light do we see? 21] for step-index ﬁber. 25], J0(r) is the zero-order Bessel function and K0(r) is the modiﬁed Hankel function.
19] where δn1 = (n1 – n2). For most ﬁbers, the core and the cladding are made of the same material, with small amounts of dopants in the core that increase its index slightly to form a waveguide. Thus, for most applications we can consider δn1 to be independent of wavelength. 20] represents the bulk chromatic dispersion of the material. The second term represents the waveguide dispersion. 20] is around 1310 nm. Thus, for non-dispersion-shifted ﬁbers there is a strong impetus to transmit at 1310 nm in order to have the highest optical bandwidth available.
The equation for loss in a single-mode splice is based on coupling theory between Gaussian beams. 8 that the fundamental mode in a singlemode ﬁber is nearly Gaussian. 29] where ρ = (kω1)2/2 q = G2 + (σ + 1)2/4 n1 = refractive index of ﬁber core n0 = refractive index of medium between ﬁbers λ = wavelength of light r = lateral offset z = longitudinal offset θ = angular misalignment ω1 = 1/e2 mode-ﬁeld radius in ﬁrst ﬁber ω2 = 1/e2 mode-ﬁeld radius in second ﬁber Chapter 2 Fundamentals of ﬁber optics 47 The angle between the direction of tilt and the plane containing the transverse offset and the ﬁber axis is γ.
Troubleshooting Optical Fiber Networks: Understanding and Using Optical Time-Domain Reflectometers by Duwayne R. Anderson