By A. Kuyvenhoven, Olga Memedovic, Nico van der Windt
In much less built international locations (LDCs) there's substantial quandary that the advancements within the imperative and jap eu nations (CEECs) could lead to a extra inward taking a look ecu Union (EU). As ecu exchange, overseas funding and relief flows are diverted from LDCs in the direction of the CEECs, shut neighbours of the ecu, a brand new size will be further to 'fortress Europe'. This quantity includes eleven chapters through students from the ecu, the CEECs and LDCs. every one paper is mentioned by way of its coverage relevance by means of a coverage maker in addition to through an instructional focusing on the sphere. within the starting bankruptcy we objective to do justice to the dialogue throughout the Workshop in Rotterdam in may possibly 1994 at which initial models of all chapters have been awarded. Edited models of the interventions through the coverage makers and specialists are integrated so far as attainable after the chapters. A precis of the dialogue is gifted within the concluding comments through Rolf Langhammer. The evaluations expressed during this quantity are these of the authors and never inevitably in their businesses. The editors XXI Foreword i'm comfortable the 1st assembly of this community is at the constructing state measurement of pan-European integration, for 2 purposes. to start with, politi cal and financial liberalization in principal and jap Europe makes it attainable, even valuable, to debate such an issue.
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Extra resources for Transition in Central and Eastern Europe: Implications for EU-LDC Relations
While in 1989 exports from these countries to the EU ranged between 83 and 108 per cent of Polish exports, in 1993 (based on eight months' data) they represented from 39 to 83 per cent of Polish exports. Hungary and the former Czechoslovakia came in the same group, and both became winners, with the former Czechoslovakia replacing Hungary between 1989 and 1993 as the leading exporter to the EU (control group: Morocco, Egypt, Mexico and Indonesia). More importantly, in 1989 aggregate exports were clearly lagging behind all figures provided by the control group (Finland, Canada, Brazil, Taiwan, China, the former Soviet Union, the ACP states, ASEAN and Latin America).
As he puts it: " ... " Moreover, a large part of it was returned to the lender in the form of payment for technical assistance, advisory fees, etc. Serious competition for FDI might only be expected to develop between the more advanced CEECs (Hungary, the Czech Republic), Latin America and the Far Eastern countries. However, this would not necessarily mean a diversion of FDI from LDCs towards the CEECs as FDI rarely flows into a non-functioning economy. " 4 EU trade policies towards LDCs and the CEECs Since the early 1960s, trade relations between the EU and LDCs have been dominated by preferential trade agreements, which grant privileged market access to imports from a particular country or region.
The only exception is China, which managed to increase its competitive edge visa-vis the va (from 2 to 17 per cent, between 1989 and 1993). 2 CEECs from which: - Fonner Soviet Union - Poland - Fonner CSFR. 2 Note: * January-August 1993. Source: EUROSTAT, External Trade Monthly Statistics, no. 3, 1994. 2 Exports to the EU by VG countries, selected LDCs and developed countries, 1989-93 (in billions of ECU and as a percentage of Polish, Hungarian and VG exports) Countries!
Transition in Central and Eastern Europe: Implications for EU-LDC Relations by A. Kuyvenhoven, Olga Memedovic, Nico van der Windt