By Abū al-Fatḥ Muḥammad ibn ʽAbd al-Karīm ash-Shahrastānī, Alfred Guillaume

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Therefore, either it must be said that power is connected with one of them with a connexion of knowledge without any influence at all-which would be equivalent to denying the difference between voluntary and involuntary, because to deny influence is the same as to deny connexion so far as the movements themselves are concerned and we only find a difference in something additional to their existence and the states3 of their existence. Or it must be said that power is connected with one of them with an influence.

A) 38 Possibility and necessity are opposites except that it can be said of that which may possibly exist that its existence is necessary through another. Some even refuse to grant as much as this on the ground that this necessity is through another's causation and the possible only needs the necessary in its existence, not in its necessity, as has already been explained. 2 (b) H everything that could exist were necessarily to exist we should have an infinity of things at a stroke! If order is a condition in substances so that they come into existence in order up to a determined number, so it is a condition in the actual existence of things.

The phenomenal world contains clear indications of the wisdom 68 of its architect; and since the order of nature manifestly comes from a perfect agent it must be the work of the wisdom of that agent. Man's knowledge is never entirely in line with what man does: it is general not detailed. The operation of -(natural) order indicates that the agent is other than he, and one whose knowledge is all embracing. This argument, however, is not confined to the ignorant but applies also to the knower Calim); for his knowledge does not fully encompass his action.

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The Summa Philosophiae of Shahrastani. Kitāb Nihāyatu ʼl-Iqdām fī ʽIlmi ʼl –Kalām (Translation) by Abū al-Fatḥ Muḥammad ibn ʽAbd al-Karīm ash-Shahrastānī, Alfred Guillaume


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