By Massimo Negrotti

ISBN-10: 3642296785

ISBN-13: 9783642296789

ISBN-10: 3642296793

ISBN-13: 9783642296796

The human ambition to breed and increase typical gadgets and strategies has a protracted historical past, and levels from desires to genuine layout, from Icarus’s wings to trendy robotics and bioengineering. This valuable looks associated not just to useful software but additionally to our inner most psychology. however, reproducing anything average isn't really a simple firm, and the particular replication of a common item or technique through a few know-how is very unlikely. during this ebook the writer makes use of the time period naturoid to designate any actual artifact coming up from our makes an attempt to breed traditional circumstances. He concentrates on actions that contain the copy of whatever latest in nature, and whose replica, via development innovations which vary from ordinary ones, we deliberate to be beneficial, attractive or fascinating.

The improvement of naturoids will be considered as a special classification of technological job, and the idea that will be beneficial for methodological examine into setting up the typical ideas, prospects and constraints that represent the human attempt to breed usual items. the writer exhibits naturoid is usually the results of a discount of the complexity of typical items, as a result of an unavoidable a number of choice technique. however, the copy strategy signifies that naturoids tackle their very own new complexity, leading to a transfiguration of the common exemplars and their performances, and resulting in a real innovation explosion. whereas the center performances of up to date naturoids increase, mockingly the extra a naturoid develops the additional it strikes clear of its common counterpart. for that reason, naturoids will increasingly more impact our relations with complicated applied sciences and with nature, yet in methods rather past our predictive services.

The booklet can be of curiosity to layout students and researchers of expertise, cultural stories, anthropology and the sociology of technology and technology.

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Extra info for The Reality of the Artificial: Nature, Technology and Naturoids

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Rather, they face the problem of inventing the best technological ways to enable a device to emulate the performances of a given, natural exemplar. It is not possible to exclude that from a naturoid we could learn something more about a natural exemplar, such as human mind, but this is only a possibility. The main goal of designers is usually the reproduction of intelligence in its known—or believed— features and not finding new scientific problems, provided they don’t misunderstand the functioning problems of the software or hardware device as problems of the human mind.

The most evident phenomenon is in a medical or biological field the various kinds of so-called ‘rejection’, including reactions of the immune system. Rejection is a true rebellion of the organism, not against the essential performance that, for instance, an artificial heart may exhibit, but against some component of it which is perceived as extraneous or dangerous to the body. Tony Keaveny, from the University of California, Berkeley, sheds light on the issue in describing the 8 The Mind Reduces Complexity, Reality Does Not Make Discounts 43 problems that bioengineers face in their attempts to build and to place artificial bones into the human organism: … joints are trouble-free for 15 years [and this may be evaluated as] a remarkable record considering the harsh biomechanical and biochemical environments of the body (Keaveny 1996) Furthermore, are multi-level interactions always around the corner because Failure of artificial joints is a multifactorial process involving a cascade of biochemical events (Prendergast 2001) Because of the immune system reactions, other researchers at Rice University Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering remember that until recently: … most research in the field [of cell transplantation] has focused on minimizing biological fluid and tissue interactions with biomaterials in an effort to prevent fibrous encapsulation from foreign-body reaction or clotting in blood that has contact with artificial devices.

In such a way, the only interaction which can take place—between the artificial and external world—is the one we defined as essential performance, the only umbilical chord connecting, to some extent, the artificial and the natural. This solution, on the other hand, will place a naturoid in a very unnatural position, since within nature no phenomenon can be completely isolated from the others because the relationships among the several observation levels involved are, so to speak, always at work.

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The Reality of the Artificial: Nature, Technology and Naturoids by Massimo Negrotti

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