By Ian M. Watt
This thoroughly revised new version includes elevated assurance of present issues and lots more and plenty new fabric. the writer offers the topic of electron microscopy in a readable approach, open either to these green within the method, and likewise to practising electron microscopists. He describes at the moment scorching subject matters equivalent to machine keep an eye on of microscopes, energy-filtered imaging, cryomicroscopy and environmental microscopy, electronic imaging, excessive answer scanning, and transmission microscopy. the writer has multiplied the hugely praised case experiences of the 1st version to incorporate a few fascinating new examples. This fundamental consultant to electron microscopy, written through an writer with thirty years' sensible adventure, may be precious to new and skilled electron microscopists in any sector of technological know-how and technology
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Additional info for The principles and practice of electron microscopy
Geometrical or Gaussian focus of paraxial rays a3 Microscopy with light and electrons a is measured in radians and Cs is a constant for a particular lens, and is called its spherical aberration coefficient. e. for best resolving power a should be small. 6X/nsina. In an electron lens n—\ and a is small enough to be equated to sin a. 6A/a, and for the best resolving power a should therefore be large. In order to balance the requirements of the two opposing effects it is necessary to choose an optimum angular aperture ao t for the objective lens which gives the same limiting resolution by the two criteria.
Microscopy is then no longer possible. In practice when there is inadequate conductivity through a specimen, in TEM or SEM but more frequently in the latter, the specimen is made conducting artificially, usually by applying a conductive surface layer (specimen coating, see later, page 163—4). If the specimen is thick enough for the electron beam to be brought to rest within it the excess energy over and above that used up in ionisation and luminescence effects will be converted into heat. The visible signs of this will depend on the circumstances — type of specimen, localisation of heating and efficiency of losing heat.
Some electrons may pass right through the atom without any interaction at all. The probability that an atom will be struck by a primary electron is conveniently visualised by a hypothetical 'cross-section'. This varies according to the energy of the electron, cross-sections being greater for low energies and vice versa. The average distance an electron can travel through the solid without a collision of some sort is the mean free path. This is only a few atomic diameters for low-energy (tens of eV) electrons such as knocked-off valence electrons but further for higher energy electrons.
The principles and practice of electron microscopy by Ian M. Watt