By Fabiano Fruett
Mechanical pressure impacts the importance of base-emitter voltages of ahead biased bipolar transistors. This phenomenon is named the piezojunction impression. The piezojunction impact is the most explanation for inaccuracy and go with the flow in built-in temperature sensors and bandgap voltage references. the purpose of The Piezojunction impression in SiliconIntegrated Circuits and Sensors is twofold. to start with, to explain suggestions that could lessen the mechanical-stress-induced inaccuracy and long term instability. Secondly, to teach, that the piezojunction impact might be utilized for brand spanking new kinds of mechanical-sensor constructions. in the course of IC fabrication and packaging thermo-mechanical tension is brought on, whilst the packaged chips quiet down to the temperature of application.
The piezojunction influence is as a result of a stress-induced switch within the conductivity of the minority-charge companies, whereas the piezoresistive impact is because of an analogous influence for the majority-charge providers. To characterise the anisotropic piezojunction impact, the authors played systematic investigations over broad levels of mechanical tension and temperature. The experiments were played for numerous crystal and tension orientations. The experimental effects were used to extract the 1st- and second-order piezojunction (FOPJ and SOPJ) coefficients for bipolar transistors.
it truly is proven how the data of the piezojunction and piezoresistive coefficients can used to lessen the bad mechanical-stress results at the electric features of transistors and resistors, respectively. units with decrease mechanical-stress sensitivity are available via evaluating their piezo-coefficients. The format of the machine is also optimized to lessen the mechanical-stress sensitivity.
As a subsequent step it truly is proven, how the information of the piezo-effects on machine point can be utilized to foretell and to minimize their destructive impression on circuit point. this can be validated for a couple of vital easy circuits, together with translinear circuits, temperature transducers and bandgap references.
ultimately, it's proven how the piezojunction influence can be utilized to manufacture stress-sensing parts. it seems that, compared to resistive stress-sensing components, the piezojunction sensors have the benefit of a smaller dimension and extremely low strength dissipation.
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Additional info for The Piezojunction Effect in Silicon Integrated Circuits and Sensors
French, Reduction of uncertainty in the measurement of the piezoresistive coefficients of silicon with a threeelement rosette, SPIE Conference on Smart Electronics and MEMS, San Diego, USA, 1998. F. Nye, Physical properties of crystals, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1985. L. E. Pikus, Symmetry and strain-induced effects in semiconductors, Wiley, New York, 1974. S. Smith, Macroscopic symmetry and properties of crystals, in F. Seitz and D. ), Solid State Physics, Vol. 6, Academic Press, New York, pp. 175-249, 1958.
Based on the cantilever technique, a moment is applied to the silicon beam, so it is reasonable to assume further that this moment causes a normal stress only in the x orientation. All the other components of normal and shear stress are zero, since the beam’s surface is free of any other load. Furthermore, by Poisson’s ratio, there are associated strain components and which deform the plane of the cross-sectional area. Such deformations will, however, cause the cross-sectional dimensions to become smaller below the neutral axis and larger above the neutral axis .
1 DC characterization at wafer level The transistor pairs have first been characterized at wafer level and without any external mechanical stress applied. The DC behavior of the vertical transistors has been extracted using the device-characterization program ICCAP. 5 V up to 1 V, while was kept at 0 V. Fig. 4 show the typical measured values at room temperature, which are represented in the form of a Gummel plot. We refrain from marking the individual data points because of their large number and regular distribution.
The Piezojunction Effect in Silicon Integrated Circuits and Sensors by Fabiano Fruett