By Ivor Brodie
The actual Electronics division of SRI foreign (formerly Stanford learn Institute) has been pioneering the advance of units fabricated to submicron tolerances for good over twenty years. In 1961, a landmark paper on electron-beam lithography and its linked applied sciences used to be released through ok. R. Shoulderst (then at SRI), which set the level for our next efforts during this box. He had the foresight to think that the development of such small units used to be truly in the diversity of human services. due to this preliminary momentum, our event within the applied sciences linked to microfabrication has develop into remarkably accomplished, regardless of the fairly small dimension of our learn job. we've often been requested to convey seminars or supply experiences on quite a few features of micro fabrication. those actions made us conscious of the necessity for a finished evaluate of the physics of microfabrication. we are hoping that this publication will fill that need.
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Extra resources for The Physics of Microfabrication
Avoid chemical reactions. Table 3 gives the etch rates for argon-ion beams at normal beam incidence. 4. Plasma Etching The etching of a sample exposed to a reactive gas plasma in which no high-voltage ions impinge on the sample is generally referred to as plasma etching. In plasma etching undercutting can be controlled to some degree by optimizing the mean free path of the etch ant molecules by pressure variation, and the adhesion remains good. An important consideration with respect to using plasma etching tech- 39 Preliminary Survey niques involves the selectivity of an etchant for one film material compared to another.
2. 32. A mass~separating. magnet eliminates unwanted ion species; After passing through the deflection and focusing control, the ion beam is aimed at the semiconductor target so that the high-energy ions ean penetrate the semiconductor surface. The energetic ions lose their energy through collisions with the target nuclei and electrons and finally come to rest. The total distance that an ion travels before coming to rest is called its range (R); the projection of this-distance onto the direction of incidence is called the projected range (Rp).
21. Process for fabricating micrometer surface relief and doping structures for layered substrates. 33 Preliminary Survey TABLE 1. 25 2-5 41 42,43,44 20 45 2-5 46 -Note: Throughput numbers are for 52-mm wafers and include wafer handling and pumpdown time for electron-beam exposure tools. 4. Etching After a resist pattern has been generated by the lithographic process (photo, electron, or X-ray), the film beneath the resist is usually delineated by an etching process. In this section we briefly review the wet-chemical and dry etching (ion etching, plasma etching, and reactive plasma etching) processes.
The Physics of Microfabrication by Ivor Brodie