By Eileen Yuk-Ha Tsang (auth.)

ISBN-10: 1137297441

ISBN-13: 9781137297440

ISBN-10: 1349346454

ISBN-13: 9781349346455

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Additional resources for The New Middle Class in China: Consumption, Politics and the Market Economy

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Habitus forms a vital part of the everyday life of individuals, thereby giving rise to lifestyles for each social group. Bourdieu sees the habitus as the key to class reproduction because perception, thought and action are what actually generate the regular, repeated practices that constitute social life. In that sense, habitus is ‘the product of social conditionings’ (Acciaioli 1981: 116) and links actual behaviour to class structure (Acciaioli 1981: 86). Bourdieu’s (1977, 1989) concept of class habitus indicates that cultural capital is the pivotal determinant of values, instincts and lifestyles.

Class exists in society when there is an exploitation relationship in production, which, under capitalism, in Marxist theory is between the bourgeoisie and the working class. As capitalism progresses, the gulf widens between the bourgeoisie and the working class, and becomes ever deeper and more distinct with time. Marxist theory bases its argument on ownership and lack of ownership of property in the means of production as being the essential determinant of class relationships. The class debate in the West is framed primarily in terms of a debate about Marx’s theories.

People in that political class have the power and privileges that enable them to control the rest of the population (Wallace 2006). The new class, the political bureaucrats, adopt a variety of measures to exert control over property ownership. The state property of the communist system is controlled by the bureaucracy of the party and the state, which therefore becomes the de facto owner. By virtue of its exercise of control over state property, then, the party bureaucracy assumes the role of the new ruling and exploiting class.

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The New Middle Class in China: Consumption, Politics and the Market Economy by Eileen Yuk-Ha Tsang (auth.)


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