By Editors Steven Greenberg William A. Ainsworth, Arthur N. Popper Richard R. Fay,
Even supposing speech is the first behavioral medium in which people speak, its auditory foundation is poorly understood, having profound implications on efforts to ameliorate the behavioral effects of listening to impairment and at the improvement of sturdy algorithms for machine speech acceptance. during this quantity, the authors offer an updated synthesis of modern examine within the quarter of speech processing within the auditory approach, bringing jointly a various diversity of scientists to provide the topic from an interdisciplinary standpoint. Of specific predicament is the power to appreciate speech in doubtful, in all probability antagonistic acoustic environments, at the moment the bane of either listening to relief and speech acceptance know-how. there's expanding proof that the perceptual balance attribute of speech knowing is due, a minimum of partly, to stylish variations of the acoustic sign played through auditory mechanisms. As a finished evaluation of speech's auditory foundation, this publication will curiosity physiologists, anatomists, psychologists, phoneticians, machine scientists, biomedical and electric engineers, and clinicians.
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Extra info for Speech Processing in the Auditory System (Springer Handbook of Auditory Research)
At this level the temporal information has probably been recoded, perhaps in the form of spatial modulation maps (Langner and Schreiner 1988; Langner 1992). Phase-locking provides yet a separate means of protecting spectral peak information through binaural cross-correlation. The phase-locked input from each ear meets in the medial superior olive, where it is likely that some form of cross-correlational analysis is computed. Additional correlational analyses are performed in the inferior colliculus (and possibly the lateral lemniscus).
A second means with which to encode and preserve the shape of spectrum is through the spatial frequency analysis performed in the cochlea (cf. Greenberg 1996a; Palmer and Shamma, Chapter 4; section 6 of this chapter). As a consequence of the stiffness gradient of the basilar membrane, its basal portion is most sensitive to high frequencies (>10 kHz), while the apical end is most responsive to frequencies below 500 Hz. Frequencies in between are localized to intermediate positions in the cochlea in a roughly logarithmic manner (for frequencies greater than 1 kHz).
When Hearing Fails The elaborate physiological and biochemical machinery associated with acoustic transduction in the auditory periphery may fail, thus providing a natural experiment with which to ascertain the speciﬁc role played by various cochlear structures in the encoding of speech. Hearing impairment also provides a method with which to estimate the relative contributions made by bottom-up and top-down processing for speech understanding (Grant and Walden 1995; Grant and Seitz 1998; Grant et al.
Speech Processing in the Auditory System (Springer Handbook of Auditory Research) by Editors Steven Greenberg William A. Ainsworth, Arthur N. Popper Richard R. Fay,