By Michael Badger
As twenty first century humans, we are living a electronic existence, yet computing device scientists all over the world warn of a declining pool of digitally literate desktop technological know-how scholars. The Scratch surroundings makes it enjoyable for college students of any age to imagine, create, and collaborate digitally.
Scratch 2.0 Beginner's advisor moment version will train you the way to turn into a Scratch programmer and lay the root for programming in any computing device language. no matter if you're making a birthday card or cloning bricks for a online game of Breakout, tasks are approached in a step by step technique to assist you layout, create, and consider every one programming exercise.
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Additional info for Scratch 2.0 Beginner's Guide (2nd Edition)
51 ADDING TIMESTAMPS 52 # ... describe "#pubdate" do # ... describe "after publishing" do before do @clock = stub! blog = stub! publish(@clock) end # ... must_equal(@now) end end end # ... Listing 43: Specifying timestamp correctness That’s a lot of test setup; any more and we’d want to find a way to refactor the tests. Now, besides creating a stubbed blog instance, we’re also creating a @clock stub. We create a fixed @now time for the clock to respond with when #now is called on it. Then we pass the clock into the Post#publish method and assert that it uses the @now time to set its #pubdate attribute.
Rejecting them has serious implications for extensibility, as well as for security and correctness. That’s why I regard any bare references to a class as a red flag, especially in Rails controller actions. I feel a lot more comfortable when I can clearly see the tree structure—trunk to limb, limb to branches, branches to twigs, twigs to leaves. 45 Getting the tests running again Unfortunately, our changes to the Posts model have broken our tests. Our nicely isolated tests don’t know where to find ActiveModel.
Method in order to present validation failures in a user-friendly way. And besides, why write that method when it’s a one-liner using ActiveModel? 61 ADDING VALIDATION 62 class Post # ... include ActiveModel::Validations validates :title, presence: true # ... end Listing 53: Implementing entry title validation with ActiveModel Now that we’re using ActiveModel to satisfy our own expectations as well as Rails’ expectations, we can no longer stub out the ActiveModel modules when running in isolation.
Scratch 2.0 Beginner's Guide (2nd Edition) by Michael Badger