By Nandita Dogra
Through the efforts of more and more media-aware NGOs, humans in wealthy countries are bombarded with photos of poverty and pain. Representations of world Poverty is the 1st accomplished research of the communications and imagery utilized by overseas NGOs to symbolize the worldwide South. during this meticulously researched and unique ebook, Nandita Dogra examines an entire cycle of illustration â€“ integrating analyses of an annual cycle of fundraising and advocacy messages of overseas improvement NGOs within the united kingdom with the perspectives in their employees and audiences. Exploring NGO messages around the discourses of charity, justice, humanism, cosmopolitanism, colonialism and Eurocentrism, she argues for a better acknowledgement of NGOs as major mediating associations that can extend understandings of worldwide inequalities. The booklet is a well timed addition to the becoming fields of improvement, media and postcolonial reviews and may be a key source for teachers, policymakers and practitioners alike who've an curiosity in international poverty, relief, NGOs, and the politics of illustration
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Extra info for Representations of global poverty : aid, development and international NGOs
Indd 30 4/27/2012 8:15:17 AM CHAPTER 2 CAST OF CHAR ACTER S The spectacle is not a collection of images, but a social relation among people, mediated by images. (Guy Debord, 1994: 12) A review of INGOs’ public messages in the UK national press during 2005/6 shows that people are the main subject of these messages. I argue in this chapter that INGOs’ messages work within dominant themes of ‘difference’ and ‘distance’ (more difference) through the representations of characters. This is implemented by way of discursive strategies of infantilisation and feminisation through portrayals of children and women respectively, as well as depictions of DW as active and giving and MW as passive and receiving.
Closer analysis, however, reveals that usually only limited information, most commonly about the INGOs’ own work and projects, is added to the fundraising message, which means that their response is in fact somewhat limited. Only seven out of a total of 139 hybrid messages were about awarenessgeneration of deeper contextual issues; the remaining 132 merely gave information about the INGO’s activities and simply publicised the INGO’s own achievements. This specific form of combined messaging seems to echo a similar trend in the United States where ‘self publicity comes to masquerade as “raising awareness’” (Sogge, 1996: 12).
A survey on how INGOs use and source photography indicates that many INGOs nowadays have picture policies (Clark, 1993 and 2003). Based on responses to questionnaires from 63 INGOs, the survey also finds that INGOs believe their visual imagery has improved over time. Their comments indicate that they avoid ‘negative’ and ‘helpless’ imagery and use ‘positive’ and active images. However, another set of critical scholars, working broadly within postcolonial theories (Shaw, 1996; Shohat and Stam, 1998; Hutnyk, 2004) argue that INGOs’ messages remain simplistic and occasionally ‘negative’, which contradicts the studies of the early 1990s claiming that ‘positive’ images were, by and large, replacing ‘negative’ imagery.
Representations of global poverty : aid, development and international NGOs by Nandita Dogra