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R3B − R1B (19) Furthermore, to obtain a triple-tapered probe, we perform step C, when the largest cone angle θC2 is given by sin θC2 R1C = 2 R3C (where R1C > R2C ) . (20) The cone angle θC1 is increased from θB by increasing the etching time TC , and is equal to θC2 at TC > τC , where τC is given by τC = r1 R1C R1C + R3C . R3C − R1C (21) Therefore, we can obtain a triple-tapered probe and a pencil-shaped probe with a cone angle θB = θC2 at 0 < TC < τC and TC > τC , respectively. 7%. 65 µm. Then we obtain an estimated value of θA = 17◦ from (13) and (19).
As the sapphire surface itself is hydrophobic, it is necessary to make it hydrophilic for a stronger adsorption of organic DNA to the surface. 5 mol/L for a few minutes, and then rinsed with distilled water. After being dried in air, the DNA solution was dropped onto the substrate. 3 DNA Images Figure 24a shows the image of DNA on the ultrasmooth sapphire surface obtained using a noncontact-mode atomic force microscope . The brightring structures correspond to DNA molecules. The observed width of a single strand, as indicated by open arrows, is estimated to be around 10 nm.
47c. As described in Sect. 3, the relative dissolution rate of GeO2 -doped glass to pure silica glass depends on the concentration of buﬀered HF mixed with a volume ratio of 40%NH4 F sol. : 50%HF acid: H2 O = X:1:Y . 7:1:5, in 50 S. Mononobe Fig. 47. (a) Cross-sectional proﬁle of the index diﬀerence ∆n. 48 . R2B R2A R2C (12) On the other hand, the relative dissolution rate of the ﬂuorine-doped section to the pure silica section is approximately ﬁxed for the concentration of BHF. 51 (j = A, B, C) .
Progress in Nano-Electro Optics III