By G. Borjas, J. Crisp
This publication examines the economics of immigration and asylum migration, targeting the industrial outcomes of felony and unlawful immigration in addition to putting the research of immigration in a world context.
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Additional info for Poverty, International Migration And Asylum
Opening the door to poorer parts of the world produced a much larger pool of potential immigrants for whom the income gains far outweighed compensating differentials favouring the home country. As a result of their lower skill levels, the new immigrants were located further down the US income distribution than were previous immigrants. More speculatively, to the extent that the return to skills (as reflected in income inequality) was greater in source countries than in the United States, there would be negative selection from within each source country,5 reinforcing the downward trend in the skills of the average US immigrant.
Hatton and Jeffrey G. 26 Note: t-statistics in parentheses. Sample: Balanced panel of five-year averages 1970–75 to 1995–2000 for eighty countries. Variable definitions: NetMigRate = net immigration per 1,000 of the population per annum, five-year average; Sp15–29 = percentage of population aged 15–29, five-year average; ImStck = percentage of foreign-born in the country, beginning of period; CivWar = proportion of civil war years in period; (YpcW – SchW)(h/f) = five-year average of ratio of county GDP per capita at 1985 ppp divided by the weighted average GDP per capita of all other countries, minus five-year average of ratio of country years of education for those aged 15 and over divided by the weighted average years of education of all other countries; (YpcR – SchR)(h/f) = five-year average of ratio of country GDP per capita at 1985 PPP divided by the weighted average GDP per capita of other countries in the same region, minus five-year average of ratio of country years of education for those aged 15 and over divided by the weighted average years of education of other countries in the region; Pov = average ratio of country Gini coefficient divided by per capita income squared.
Yet, real incomes in Africa are a tiny fraction of those in Europe and North America so the incentive to emigrate should be huge. Indeed, the gaps are many times larger than those that gave rise to the mass emigrations from Europe a century ago. There are three possible explanations for this apparent paradox. First, OECD immigration policies that stress family reunification or skills impose high hurdles that serve to screen out potential African migrants. This 28 What Fundamentals Drive World Migration?
Poverty, International Migration And Asylum by G. Borjas, J. Crisp