By Maria Petmesidou, Christos Papatheodorou
Major economists, sociologists and social coverage specialists record with new and up to date empirical fabric the altering profiles of poverty and social deprivation in Southern Europe, Turkey, the Balkans, North Africa, and the close to East. What emerges is a comparability of social tendencies shared around the quarter, in addition to the massive variety of public responses and rules to the demanding situations of poverty and social inequality.
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Additional info for Poverty and Social Deprivation in the Mediterranean: Trends, Policies and Welfare Prospects in the New Millennium (International Studies in Poverty Research)
According to Waterbury, Middle Eastern societies have given prominence to such quests. Furthermore, even though present regimes may have failed to attain goals attached to such quests, opposition groups seem to offer not ‘democracy as an alternative to authoritarianism, but rather an untarnished instrument to pursue the same cause. In this view, so long as both civil society and the state believe in and pursue such quests, the emergence of genuine pluralism is difﬁcult’ (Richards 2003: 69). For an examination of opposition movements (and particularly the Islamist political movements) in MENA and the prospects of democratization, see Shadid (2001) and Salvatore (2001).
In Egypt, Jordan, Yemen and Sudan37 we observe a more spectacular increase: from zero in the period prior to the oil-price boom to about 8 per cent in 1977, and then to a peak of roughly 14 per cent in the mid-1980s, followed by a decline and a second peak in 1992. 40 A common feature in all the countries is that poverty incidence and intensity are higher among rural residents, although urban poverty has been increasing since the early 1990s. Morocco and Egypt constitute two contrasting cases in respect of the rural/urban gap.
Morocco and Egypt constitute two contrasting cases in respect of the rural/urban gap. The gap is wider in Morocco (also in Tunisia, but data are available only up to 1995 in this case) and narrowest in Egypt. For Morocco, which took the lead in introducing economic reform in the MENA region, the effects on inequality and poverty have been mixed. 2), Morocco is ranked only slightly above Sudan and Mauritania, which are the two least developed MENA countries. On the other hand, Egypt, which has carried out a relatively successful land reform and adopted liberal policies in a more moderate way, exhibits lower levels of inequality and a smaller urban/rural gap.
Poverty and Social Deprivation in the Mediterranean: Trends, Policies and Welfare Prospects in the New Millennium (International Studies in Poverty Research) by Maria Petmesidou, Christos Papatheodorou