By Massimo Pigliucci
A brand new voice within the nature-nurture debate might be heard on the interface among evolution and improvement. Phenotypic integration--or, how huge numbers of features are with regards to make up the total organism, and the way those relationships evolve and alter their function--is a tremendous development zone in examine, attracting the eye of evolutionary biologists, developmental biologists, and geneticists, in addition to, extra largely, ecologists, physiologists, and paleontologists. This edited assortment provides a lot of the easiest and newest paintings the subject.
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Additional resources for Phenotypic Integration: Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes
Modules have three characteristics (Wagner 1996; Wagner and Altenberg 1996): (1) the parts of a module collectively serve a joint function; (2) the parts of a module are, to some extent, genetically (or epigenetically) integrated; and (3) variation in parts of a module is quasi-independent of variation in other modules. Floral modularity has important evolutionary consequences beyond plasticity. Flower modules can evolve quasi-independently of other plant parts; for example, floral evolution can be rapid and labile while vegetative traits remain relatively unchanged, or vice versa.
Interestingly, the correlations tended to be stronger among populations than within populations, although the difference in the values of corrected integration index was not significant (compare Figs. 4). Whether this is a general trend requires more work on additional species (see below). A subset of the blossom traits most directly related to pollination function was measured in the field at three hierarchical levels: among genets within one population of D. scandens (Tulum), among 18 populations of D.
Somera, D. A. Mongru, Z. N. -L. Barabasi. 2002. Hierarchical organization of modularity in metabolic networks. Science 297:15511555. Rhees, B. , and W. R. Atchley. 2000. Body weight and tail length divergence in mice selected for rate of development. Journal of Experimental Zoology (Molecular and Developmental Evolution) 288:151-164. Richardson, R. C. 2001. Complexity, self-organization and selection. Biology and Philosophy 16:655-683. Roces, F. 2002. Individual complexity and self-organization in foraging by leaf-cutting ants.
Phenotypic Integration: Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes by Massimo Pigliucci