By Robert R. McCrae PhD, Paul T. Costa Jr. PhD
Up to date and revised with an emphasis on balance in character via maturity. The Five-Factor idea is defined and comprises new proof, relatively cross-cultural and longitudinal findings. earlier version: c1990.
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Additional resources for Personality in adulthood: a five-factor theory perspective
Perhaps the most ambitious new theory of lifespan development is called SOC, for selection, optimization, and compensation (P. B. Baltes, 1997). This theory describes how individuals react to the opportunities 18 PERSONALITY IN ADULTHOOD and limitations that life presents at each point in the lifespan. Selection refers to the choice of goals; optimization to their effective pursuit; and compensation to the use of alternatives when established methods fail. For example, an older person suffering a loss of vision may give up reading (selection) or may use higher-wattage lights (optimization), or may turn to audio books (compensation).
Psychoanalytic theories of personality (Freud, 1933, 1900/1938) stress the individual’s unconscious motivations, which must be inferred from such indirect sources as dreams, slips of the tongue, and fantasies. , Bandura, 1977) have acknowledged the role of cognitive processes in shaping behavior. Humanistic psychologies (Maddi & Costa, 1972), which arose in reaction to what were perceived as the irrational and mechanistic biases of psychoanalytic and behavioral theories, emphasize humankind’s capacity to think, love, and grow.
The model we develop below is central to the remainder of this book, for when we say that personality is stable, we mean personality as defined by that trait model. We also discuss personality measurement later in this chapter, since measures and their interpretation allow us to check theories against the facts. We offer our preferred theories, models, and methods in this and the following chapter, but even in the current climate of emerging consensus the reader should realize that our preferences are not universally shared (J.
Personality in adulthood: a five-factor theory perspective by Robert R. McCrae PhD, Paul T. Costa Jr. PhD