By Lucien S. Vandenbroucke

ISBN-10: 0195045912

ISBN-13: 9780195045918

ISBN-10: 1429405473

ISBN-13: 9781429405478

Long ago 3 many years, the USA govt has used specified operations again and again with a purpose to in achieving key international coverage goals, resembling within the overthrow of Fidel Castro in Cuba and the rescuing of yankee hostages in Iran. lots of those mystery missions performed by way of hugely educated commando forces have failed. In Perilous innovations, Lucien Vandenbroucke examines the use and misuse of such precise operations via an in-depth research of 4 operations--the Bay of Pigs invasion, the Sontay raid to rescue POWs in North Vietnam, the Mayaguez operation, and the Iran hostage rescue venture. Drawing generally on declassified govt records, interviews with key selection makers and contributors in those episodes, and different basic fabric, Perilous thoughts identifies recurrent difficulties within the manner the USA govt has ready and carried out such operations. those recurrent difficulties, defined via key contributors in those 4 distinctive operations, comprise defective intelligence, terrible interagency and interservice cooperation and coordination, insufficient info and suggestion supplied to decisionmakers, wishful pondering at the a part of decisionmakers, and overcontrol of venture execution from outdoors the theater of operations. Vandenbroucke additionally explores the level to which contemporary efforts to revitalize the U.S. operations power have addressed those difficulties, settling on extra adjustments that may enhance the government's skill to devise, review, and execute such operations.

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Extra resources for Perilous Options: Special Operations as an Instrument of U.S. Foreign Policy

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68 A few advisers did oppose the plan. " He was skeptical about the likelihood of uprisings. Nor did he think an operation so large could be covert. He also believed that it would violate international law. But at the start of the new administration, Rusk did not think it was his role as secretary of state to pass judgment on the military aspects of the plan. He also believed that as secretary of state he should, in the words of biographer Warren I. Cohen, not "influence the debate, but preside over it," and only afterward give his views privately to the president.

55 In short, the bulk of the Brigade was not trained for and its leaders were uninterested in guerrilla action, which was not a serious option. In addition, the Bay of Pigs was unsuitable for large-scale guerrilla operations. The terrain offered almost no water or game. " Looking back, Bissell explained: "It was rather lightheartedly assumed by the CIA that the swampy regions around the Bay of Pigs, while utterly different geographically from the mountains near Trinidad, could support guerrilla operations.

8 The CIA had other powerful arguments in favor of acting quickly. Guatemalan President Ydigoras, faced with rising domestic criticism for harboring the Cuban exiles, had asked the United States to remove the trainees by March 1961. Moreover, Guatemala's rainy season would begin soon, bringing training to a halt. The CIA added that the exile force was at peak readiness; its effectiveness would erode if it waited much longer. "9 Nor could the administration ignore domestic politics. "10 Canceling the operation would leave him open to attack.

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Perilous Options: Special Operations as an Instrument of U.S. Foreign Policy by Lucien S. Vandenbroucke

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