By Hermann Wollnik
Educational Press, 1987. Paperback. ebook no longer Used
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Extra resources for Optics of Charged Particles
The capital cost for this equipment is far less than that of comparably sized vacuum systems. 2. Chamber Geometry and Process Considerations The size of a vacuum coating chamber can have an important effect on several coating parameters. The surface to volume ratio can affect the residual gas load and composition and the temperature reached during coating. The distribution of coating on the part, and the fraction of evaporated material that actually coats the substrate is related to the size of the chamber with respect to the size of the substrate or the coating area.
201, 204; Maissel and Giang, 1970, pp. , of Brooklyn, N. Y" 11222, is one plating company that actively supplies gold electroplated parts to optical industry types of specifications. 32 CHAPTER 2 In practice, temperatures from 50°C to several hundred degrees are used. The upper limit on the temperature used is limited by a number of factors. In some coating equipment, the amount of heating that can be done is limited by the available heat sinking or cooling, as all of the heat that enters into a system must eventually be removed.
Preferably, the part is located near the peak of the distribution where the slope is the smallest and there is the least variability in thickness over the part. The variation of the coating flux in an evaporator can frequently be modeled in a manner similar to that used for light intensity calculations in an optical system: the drop-off in thickness is proportional to cos4 6: one cosine factor comes from the source distribution (Lambertian), two come from the 1/,-2 increase in distance between the source and the substrate, and the last factor comes from the change in the subtended surface area at the substrate.
Optics of Charged Particles by Hermann Wollnik