By Adrianus Korpel

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Fortunately, the increased interest in making genetically encoded probes useful for monitoring activity in the intact brain should help to fulfill the promise of these tools for studying nervous system function in the near future. Finally, in this review we have focused on genetically encoded probes to optically image brain activity in vivo. 54–56 We envisage that in the near future, genetically encoded tools will allow for optical probing combined with and complemented by optical control of assemblies of specific individual nerve cells in vivo.

One area of improvement that has received relatively little effort to date is the development of longer-wavelength FP probes. 53 The increase in signal-to-noise ratio when imaging with longer-wavelength probes in vivo in the mammalian brain—particularly when imaging with epifluorescence—can be an order of magnitude; thus, developing longer-wavelength versions of the current generation of FP sensors could be the most efficient way to increase probe performance. Red-shifted FP calcium and voltage sensors are currently being developed in several labs, but are not yet widely distributed.

21. Li, Z. et al. Synaptic vesicle recycling studied in transgenic mice expressing synaptopHluorin. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 102: 6131–6136, 2005. 22. Ng, M. et al. Transmission of olfactory information between three populations of neurons in the antennal lobe of the fly. Neuron, 36: 463–474, 2002. © 2009 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 34 In Vivo Optical Imaging of Brain Function, Second Edition 23. , and Wachowiak, M. In vivo imaging of neuronal activity by targeted expression of a genetically encoded probe in the mouse.

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Optical Imaging of Ultrasonic Fields by Acoustic Bragg Diffraction (PhD thesis) by Adrianus Korpel

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