By Bertrand Russell

ISBN-10: 0415487404

ISBN-13: 9780415487405

Bertrand Russell is taken into account to be essentially the most major academic innovators of his time. during this influential and debatable paintings, Russell demands an schooling that might unencumber the kid from unthinking obedience to parental and non secular authority. He argues that if the root of all schooling is wisdom wielded via love then society may be reworked. one in all Bertrand Russell’s so much definitive works, the striking rules and arguments in On Education are only as insightful and acceptable this present day as they have been on first e-book in 1926.

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For Kelly a person is ‘a form of motion’ – thus he denies the necessity of ‘carrot and stick’ or ‘impulse-driven’ theories of motivation. People are inevitably and constantly attempting to make sense of their environment. A person’s anticipation of future events, is ‘both the push and pull of the psychology of Personal Constructs’ (Kelly, 1955: 49). Kelly does not deny the impor­ tance of early experiences or present environmental circumstances, but he suggested that it was more important to know what and how people think about their present situation than to know what their early childhood experiences were or what environmental circumstances they now find themselves in.

The encounter he advocated is similar to that found in the clientcentred, non-directive therapeutic process that Rogers used in his psychotherapy. A main feature of this encounter is the quality of regard one for the other. e. independent of her/his ability, interests, social class etc. Labels should be abandoned. Only within the context of unconditional acceptance may learners feel free to express their best and most creative aspects instead of merely regurgitating imposed knowledge. This type of interpersonal encounter does not necessitate sentimentality or laissez­ faire attitudes within education, rather it encourages self-directed disci­ pline with the learners setting limits rather than obeying imposed rules.

This stock of knowledge seems similar to Kelly’s view of a construct system. It is continually changing through the processes of constitution and accom­ modation in the same way as validation and invalidation lead to elaboration and reorganization in a person’s construct system. Schutz, however, empha­ sized that the individual’s ‘frame of reference’ is a social product in that confirmation or disconfirmation of it is likely to come from his/her ‘consoci­ ates’ – those with whom the individual has most social contact – with whom he/she is jointly engaged in reality construction.

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On Education (Routledge Classics) by Bertrand Russell


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