By Sven Ove Hansson, Anthonie W. M. Meijers, Marc J. de Vries (auth.), Marc J. de Vries, Sven Ove Hansson, Anthonie W.M. Meijers (eds.)

ISBN-10: 9400752423

ISBN-13: 9789400752429

ISBN-10: 9400752431

ISBN-13: 9789400752436

This booklet is a particular fusion of philosophy and know-how, delineating the normative panorama that informs today’s applied sciences and tomorrow’s innovations. The authors learn what we deem to be the interior norms that govern our ever-expanding technical universe. spotting that advancements in expertise and engineering actually create our human destiny, remodeling present wisdom into tomorrow’s instruments and infrastructure, they chart the normative standards we use to guage novel technological artifacts: how, for instance, will we pass judgement on a ‘good’ from a ‘bad’ professional method or nuclear energy plant? in addition to those ‘functional’ norms, and the norms that consultant technological wisdom and reasoning, the booklet examines often agreed benchmarks in safeguard and threat relief, which play a pivotal position in engineering practice.

Informed through the middle perception that, in expertise and engineering, genuine wisdom pertaining to, for instance, to the homes of fabrics or the load-bearing features of differing building designs isn't really sufficient, this research follows the customarily unseen foundations upon which applied sciences rest—the norms that advisor the inventive forces shaping the technical panorama to come back. The ebook, a entire survey of those rising themes within the philosophy of expertise, clarifies the function those norms (epistemological, practical, and risk-assessing) play in technological innovation, and the implications they've got for our realizing of technological knowledge.

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The same goes for rules such as ‘If you are caught in a thunderstorm, avoid trees and large bodies of water and roll up in a ball’. These are even more evidently part of practical wisdom rather than technology, but based on knowledge of the natural world. One cannot object to Bunge’s analysis on the ground that he equates diets and engineering science: he intends the analysis to apply to medical technologies, including therapies and diets, and all kinds of behavioural repertoires. Some of his examples suggest that Bunge intends technological rules and thus technology to have a wide scope, encompassing every systematic pursuit of practical goals.

G. from diet books, commercials or hearsay). g. by substituting cauliflower with broccoli in a suggested diet). Virtually all plans consist of more than one action. 7 Here, the analysis connects to the notion of ‘practical norm’ introduced by Von Wright (1963) and, indirectly, to the analysis of instrumental knowledge given by Niiniluoto (1993). Like Bunge, Niiniluoto aims at understanding applied research through focussing on relations between means (actions) and ends. His discussion and its relation to the present analysis are complicated, however, by Niiniluoto’s insistence on distinguishing between technology, which concerns actions and is evaluated in terms of its effectiveness, and instrumental knowledge, which concerns technical norms and is evaluated in terms of truth.

In other words, the design contains a technological explanation. Technological explanations contain structural and functional propositions in some kind of argumentative structure. This ‘know-why’ is an integral part of the knowledge base of engineers; knowing why a particular structure fulfils an intended function or, in case of malfunctioning, why it malfunctions is of great importance for engineering practice. From an epistemological point of view, this know-why is a very interesting form of knowledge, because it connects two different types of descriptions of the world.

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Norms in technology by Sven Ove Hansson, Anthonie W. M. Meijers, Marc J. de Vries (auth.), Marc J. de Vries, Sven Ove Hansson, Anthonie W.M. Meijers (eds.)

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