By D. W. Pohl (auth.), Dieter W. Pohl, Daniel Courjon (eds.)
Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM, often referred to as NSOM) is a brand new local probe technique with a resolving strength of 10--50 nm. now not being constrained by means of diffraction, near-field optics (NFO) opens new views for optical characterization and the knowledge of optical phenomena, specifically in biology, microelectronics and fabrics science.
SNOM, after first demonstrations in '83/'84, has passed through a fast improvement long ago to 4 years. The elevated curiosity has been mostly influenced by way of the wealth of optical homes that may be investigated and the becoming value of characterization at the nanometer scale often. Examples contain using fluorescence, birefrigence and plasmon results for purposes particularly in biology, microelectronics and fabrics technological know-how, to call only a few.
This quantity emerged from the 1st foreign assembly dedicated solely to NFO, and contains a whole survey of the 1992 actions within the box, particularly the diversity of instrumental ideas which are presently being explored, the demonstration of the imaging features in addition to theoretical interpretations - a hugely nontrivial activity. the excellent selection of papers dedicated to those and similar matters make the booklet a worthy instrument for anyone drawn to near-field optics.
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Additional resources for Near Field Optics
And Baumeister, W. (1991) 'Imaging of uncoated purple membrane by scanning tunneling microscopy', J. Vac. Sci. Technol. , 1227-1230. , and Ohtsu, M. (1992) 'Reproducible fabrication technique of nanometric tip diameter fiber probe for photon scanning tunneling microscope', Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. ll, L 1302-L1304. Pohl, D. , Fischer, U. , and Durig, U. T. (1988) 'Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM)', J. Microscopy ill, 853-861. Meyer, E. and Heinzelmann, H. (1992) 'Scanning Force Microscopy (SFM)" in Wiesendanger, R.
This signal has two important features: i) it is the 32 Fig. 4. a Fig. 5 . (4) result of the pseudo-heterodyne interference wi th a strong reference beam, thus eliminating any problems associated with low light level detection; ii) it automatically has a linear dependence on the rotation angle, rather than a square law dependence, as is dictated by Malus's law in a conventional set-up . We note that there is no need for an analyzer . As a result of these features, the signal so detected represents a great improvement in SIN, enabling a simple photodiode to be used, instated of a PMT.
Phys. 20, 71. Kopelman, R. Smith, S. , Lieberman, K and Lewis, A. (1992) "Spectral Analysis of Surfaces at Subwavelength Resolution", SPIE, 1637,33. , Lewis, A. and Kopelman, R. (1990) "A Light Source Smaller than the Optical Wavelength", Science 247, 59-61. Nau, H. and Scott, W. J. (1987) "Teratogenicity of Valproic Acid and Related Substances in the Mouse: Drug Accumulation and pHi in the Embryo During Organogenesis and StructureActivity Considerations", Arch. , Suppl. 11, 128. , and Swenberg, E.
Near Field Optics by D. W. Pohl (auth.), Dieter W. Pohl, Daniel Courjon (eds.)