By Yang Leng
This ebook covers cutting-edge options known in smooth fabrics characterization. vital points of characterization, fabrics constructions and chemical research, are incorporated. favourite suggestions, reminiscent of metallography (light microscopy), X-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, are defined. additionally, the booklet introduces complicated innovations, together with scanning probe microscopy. the second one half the e-book for this reason offers ideas corresponding to X-ray strength dispersive spectroscopy (commonly outfitted within the scanning electron microscope), fluorescence X-ray spectroscopy, and renowned floor research ideas (XPS and SIMS). eventually, vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR and Raman) and thermal research also are lined.
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Extra info for Materials Characterization: Introduction to Microscopic and Spectroscopic Methods
It removes air from the pores, crevices and cracks of specimens, and then replaces such empty space in the specimen with epoxy resin. Firstly, a specimen is ground with grit paper to flatten the surface to be examined. The specimen is placed with the surface uppermost inside the mold in a vacuum chamber. Then, the chamber is evacuated for several minutes before filling the mold with epoxy. The vacuum is maintained for a few minutes and then air is allowed to enter the chamber for a curing period.
For swab etching, the polished surface of a specimen is wiped with a soft cotton swab saturated with etchant. 0 ml HF, 95 ml water Nital Fe and steels 1–10 ml HNO3 in 90–99 ml methanol Picral Stainless steels Cu and alloys Ti and alloys Mg and alloys Zn and alloys 4–10 g picric acid, 100 ml ethanol Vilella’s Reagent 1 g picric acid, 5 ml HCl, 100 ml ethanal 2 g K2 Cr2 O7 , 8 ml H2 SO4 , 4 drops HCl, 100 ml water 10 ml HF, 5 ml HNO3 , 85 ml water 1 ml HNO3 , 75 ml ethylene glycol, 25 ml water Palmerton’s Reagent Co and alloys 40 g CrO3 , 3 g Na2 SO4 , 200 ml water 15 ml HNO3 , 15 ml acetic acid, 60 ml HCl, 15 ml water Ni and alloys 50 ml HNO3 , 50 ml acetic acid Al2 O3 CaO and MgO 15 ml water, 85 ml H3 PO4 Concentrated HCl CeO2 , SrTiO3 , Al2 O3 and ZrO–ZrC Si3 N4 SiC 20 ml water, 20 ml HNO3 , 10 ml HF Polyethylene (PE) poly(acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) (ABS); highimpact polystrene (HIPS); and poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO) Polypropylene (PP) Phenol formaldehyde a Immerse few seconds to 1 minute Immerse few seconds to 1 minute Immerse for up to 1 minute Add the HCl before using; immerse 3 to 60 seconds Swab 3–20 seconds Swab 3 to 120 seconds Immerse up to 3 minutes; rinse in 20% aq.
L. , New York. ) 49 X-ray Diffraction Methods Image Not Available In The Electronic Edition characteristic X-ray radiations in barium. The absorption edges of LIII , LII , LI and K represent the excitation of LIII , LII , LI and K characteristic X-rays in barium, respectively. The feature of absorption edge can be used for X-ray radiation filtering. 5. We may select a filter material of which the absorption edge is located at the wavelength slightly shorter than that of Kα radiation. 5. 1 nm. 2 of Chapter 1.
Materials Characterization: Introduction to Microscopic and Spectroscopic Methods by Yang Leng