By E. Reynolds

ISBN-10: 140396338X

ISBN-13: 9781403963383

Unlike Euro-centric works on comparative fascism that set Japan except Germany and Italy, this publication emphasizes parallels among Japan and its Axis Allies. Romantic nationalist ideologies attracted a robust following in all 3 countries as they emerged as glossy states within the past due 1800s. In either Germany and Japan those have been, from the start, strongly racial in nature. Spurred by way of grievances opposed to the ''status quo'' powers, all 3 took up competitive regulations within the Thirties, generating a short-lived ''fascist era.'' Japan's popular position calls for a broader viewpoint and attention of ''fascism'' as greater than a merely eu phenomenon.

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Advocates of these ideas viewed their position as one of struggle for collective survival in a hostile, Darwinian world. ”161 Over time all three came to see themselves as have-not nations. These embittered nations increasingly found themselves on common ground. 162 He transposed the war among the classes within society, into a grand, geopolitical war among classes of nations. Unlike Gramsci, he emphasized the need for a new national spirit and collective identity capable of heroism in geopolitical battles, be they diplomatic or martial.

In this framework, the existing international order with its rampant imperialism could be justified as an outgrowth of a natural, scientific process. Philosophy developed into a powerful force for explaining the uncertainties of the nineteenth century. Hegel, the ideological progenitor of the age, inspired Marxism on the Left and neo-Hegelianism on the Right. Hegel’s influential theory of “History” and of historical consciousness—which invested intelligence and direction into the chronological march of human events—empowered generations of thinkers to find rational outcomes for seemingly irrational circumstances.

159 This view was similar to the cultural Volkism of Nazi Germany and the New Man culture of Fascist Italy. Advocates of these ideas viewed their position as one of struggle for collective survival in a hostile, Darwinian world. ”161 Over time all three came to see themselves as have-not nations. These embittered nations increasingly found themselves on common ground. 162 He transposed the war among the classes within society, into a grand, geopolitical war among classes of nations. Unlike Gramsci, he emphasized the need for a new national spirit and collective identity capable of heroism in geopolitical battles, be they diplomatic or martial.

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Japan in the Fascist Era by E. Reynolds


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