By Valérie Sagant and Margaret Shaw
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Additional info for INTERNATIONAL REPORT CRIME PREVENTION AND COMMUNITY SAFETY: TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES
10, nos. 2-3. 163-86. 53 Tiré de Guarjardo García C. ) (2008). Seguridad y Prevención: La situación en Argentina, Chile y Uruguay durante 2007. CIPC et Universidad Alberto Hurtado. 54 (2003) Inter-American Development Bank. 16 / International Report 2010 Rates of Homicide in Colombian Cities, per 100,000 pop. 2. The Prevalence and Impact of Small Arms Data from 45 countries reported in the Tenth UN Crime Trends Survey56 suggests that around 60 per cent of homicides are committed with ﬁrearms, ranging from 77% in Central America, to 19% in Western Europe.
Pp. 45-61; Grogger, J. T. (1998) Market wages and youth crime Journal of Labour Economics 16. Pp. 756-791; Rosenfeld, R. and Fornango, R. (2007) The impact of economic conditions on robbery and property crime: the role of consumer sentiment Criminology 45. Pp. 735-769. 6 or above Extremely high levels of inequality, not only among individuals, but also among social groups (known as “horizontal inequality”). Wealth concentrated among certain groups at the exclusion of the majority. High risk of social unrest or civil conﬂict.
Some estimates include direct costs such as public spending on the criminal justice system. In developing countries, for example, expenditure on law enforcement consumes 10-15% of GDP compared to 5% in developed countries61. Other estimates include welfare and indirect or hidden costs. The World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Small Arms Survey, have developed guidelines for estimating both direct and indirect economic costs of violence62. In Jamaica direct and indirect costs were estimated to be equivalent to 4% of GDP.
INTERNATIONAL REPORT CRIME PREVENTION AND COMMUNITY SAFETY: TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES by Valérie Sagant and Margaret Shaw