By World Bank Group
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Extra info for India: achievements and challenges in reducing poverty
It also draws on work by Peter Lanjouw (village studies and poverty profile), Valerie Kozel and Ruslan Yemtsov (survey of anti-poverty programs), Ravi Srivastava (survey of existing literature), Shreelata Rao-Seshadri (NGOs), Keith Hinchliffe and Mark Schlagel (human resources). The reviewers Lionel Demery and Soniya Carvalho provided very helpful comments and suggestions. The report also benefited from useful comments from John Williamson (Chief Economist), Rui Coutinho (SASVP), Benu Bidani (ASTHR), Meera Chatterjee (SA2RS), Dimitri Tzanninis and Martin Muhleisen (IMF), and Ajit Ghose (ILO).
Enrollment rates for their male counterparts were 33 percent for the younger boys and 55 percent for the older ones. 2 percent it actually achieved. Landlessness is closely associated with rural poverty. Not only is Indian poverty predominantly rural in absolute numbers, its incidence is more frequent in the countryside than in cities by a six-to-ifive ratio. And in an agrarian economy a good indicator of well being is land ownership. The risk of poverty among the landless is considerably greater than for the population as a whole.
Half of all children under the age of five are malnourished and one third of all newborn babies are underweight. Variations between states again demonstrate the ability of governments to improve on these aspects of life to which the poor are disproportionately exposed and which reduce their capacity to benefit from increased economic opportunities. Investments in education and health have been below those necessary to accelerate growth prospects and poverty reduction. Much of the fiscal responsibility for these activities lies with state governments and inter-state variations are large.
India: achievements and challenges in reducing poverty by World Bank Group