By P. Michael Conn
This quantity addresses present equipment in organic imaging, together with wide sections on MRI, CAT, NMR, puppy and different imaging innovations.
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Additional resources for Imaging in Biological Research Part B
2AÃ þ 2H2 O þ E nAÃ ! 63 T2 Contrast Agents. , magnetoliposomes),65 resulting in diameters of 17–50 nm. 5 T. In comparison, the corresponding T1 relaxivity of these compounds is typically below 10 (mM Á s)À1. The superparamagnetism of the iron oxide core depends upon the alignment of individual electron spins. 5 T is 240 (mM Á s)À1. These 63 A. , L. Matuszewski, C. Bremer, A. Petrovsky, and R. Weissleder, Mol. Imaging 1, 16 (2002). 64 P. Gillis, A. Roch, and R. A. Brooks, J. Magn. Reson. 137, 402 (1999).
Pixel-wise maps can be generated from the acquired data and processed with the appropriate model to obtain spatial maps of tumor vascular volume and vascular permeability surface area product. A simple linear compartment model, describing uptake of the contrast agent from plasma, postulates a negligible reflux of the contrast agent from the interstitium back to the blood compartment. Blood concentrations of the contrast agent can be approximated to be constant for the duration of the MR experiment, and under these conditions, contrast uptake is a linear function of time (Fig.
Lauffer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124, 3152 (2002). 46 E. Strable, J. W. Bulte, B. M. Moskowitz, K. Vivekanandan, M. Allen, and T. Douglas, Chem. Mater. 13, 2201 (2001). 24 disease models  complex, GdDTPA chelates are used most frequently. 51 To increase the relaxivity per target site, multiple Gd chelates can be attached to a polymer carrier molecule such as a protein. In comparison with GdDTPA, these high molecular weight complexes have a longer circulation time and increased relaxivity. 57–59 The typical molecular size of these CA varies from about 6–8 nm for protein-based agents to $200 nm for polymerized liposomes and nanoparticle emulsions.
Imaging in Biological Research Part B by P. Michael Conn