By Tobacco Advisory Group of the Royal College of Physicians

ISBN-10: 186016319X

ISBN-13: 9781860163197

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Early mortality results from a prospective study. BMJ 1998;317:1423–4. Liu BQ, Peto R, Chen ZM et al. Emerging tobacco hazards in China: retrospective proportional mortality study of one million deaths. BMJ 1998;317:1411–22. Royal College of Physicians. Health or smoking? Follow-up report of the Royal College of Physicans. London: Pitman Publishing, 1998. WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer. Tobacco smoking. IARC monograph on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans.

Doc (accessed 7 August 2007). Office for National Statistics. Cigarette smoking: slight fall in smoking prevalence. General Household Survey, 2005. London: The Stationery Office, 2006. id=866 (accessed 7 August 2007). Jarvis MJ. Monitoring cigarette smoking prevalence in Britain in a timely fashion. Addiction 2003;98:1569–74. Lader D, Goddard E. Smoking-related behaviour and attitudes, 2004. London: Office for National Statistics, 2005. Office for National Statistics. Prevalence of cigarette smoking by sex and socio-economic classification based on the current or last job of the household reference person: living in Britain.

Thus, it is still not clear which nAChR subtype or subtypes contribute to tobacco dependence, but animal models suggest that nicotinic receptors containing α4 and β2 subunits are the most likely candidates. 102 Finally, it is important to emphasise that existing animal testing paradigms model, at best, only certain aspects of cigarette smoking. 9 Conclusions H Nicotine targets receptors whose natural function is to interact with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). H By activating these nicotinic receptors, nicotine increases the firing rate of neurons and increases the release of various neurotransmitters.

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Harm reduction in nicotine addiction: helping people who can't quit by Tobacco Advisory Group of the Royal College of Physicians


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