By Robert Zorich
Here's a finished useful consultant to whole wafer fabrication technique from A to Z. Written through a practising procedure engineer with years of expertise, this booklet presents an intensive creation to the advanced box of IC production, together with wafer quarter structure and layout, yield optimization, just-in-time administration platforms, statistical qc, fabrication gear and its setup, and cleanroom suggestions. moreover, it features a wealth of knowledge on universal approach difficulties: the way to observe them, find out how to make certain them, and the way to unravel them. no matter if you're a new enginner or technician simply coming into the sector, a fabrication supervisor searching for how one can enhance caliber and creation, or an individual who may similar to to grasp extra approximately IC production, this can be the ebook you are looking for.
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Additional resources for Handbook of Quality Integrated Circuit Manufacturing
For example, a film analyzer that allows wafers to be processed with out-of-tolerance readings may result in a wafer with low device yield, or with a batch of material that operates at an unacceptably slow rate. While these parts may function, they could be salable only at a reduced price. These kinds of surprises are usually discovered too late, and usually have an impact on far too many wafers. The response from top management to this situation is usually not very positive, to say the least. To give the reader an idea of the impact of the increase in clock rates, in 1980 the Apple II was driven by a 6502 with about a 2-MHz clock rate.
4 M a n u f a c t u r i n g and R e l i a b i l i t y A s p e c t s Device reliability must be one of the most crucial concerns for the manufacturing process. Integrated circuit failures in the field are unacceptable, and in many instances very dangerous. (Next time you fly, think about the chips that went into the plane. Would you want a radar altimeter chip giving incorrect readings as you approach the field in a storm? ) In addition, any chips that are to go into critical applications are usually specified to be able to maintain more rigorous standards, such as military specification (Mil-Spec) quality levels.
This number typically ranges from 40 to 90% of the available chips. A yield of 40% is pretty bad, but if the chip is very large or has a very high average selling price, it may be that a 40% die yield is acceptable. If yields decline much below this, the wafers become interesting only as engineering experiments. Most merchant manufacturers hope for die yields of 70 to 85% on their wafers, and few can sustain die yields above 90% on modern technologies. One of the top priorities of the engineer is to develop methods to maximize and stabilize die yield.
Handbook of Quality Integrated Circuit Manufacturing by Robert Zorich