By Ronald Ernest Clements

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Such a hypothesis is attractive, but cannot be considered as more than a possibility. 4 i Sam. i. 9; iii. 3. 5 O. Eissfeldt, 'Silo und Jerusalem', pp. , argues that Shiloh had the same meaning for Israel that afterwards attached to Jerusalem, but this goes too far. 6 Ps. lxxviii. 60; cf. Jer. vii. 12. 2 3 T H E T E N T OF MEETING 39 hypothesis is that it was dedicated to an El-Sebaoth, who was regarded as the divine king, enthroned upon cherubim. At Shiloh Israel's cult assumed a more elaborate form, in which several religious symbols and ideas, in part of diverse origin, were welded together into a unity.

Num. vi. 22-27 Î Exod. xx. 7, 24. 5 O. isia, Berlin, 1950, pp. 139fr. ; R. de Vaux, 'Les chérubins et l'arche d'alliance', pp. i23f. ; H. J. Kraus, Gottesdienst in Israel2, pp. 150, 207f. 3 The two references which fall into this category are i Sam. iv. 4, when the ark was at Shiloh, and 2 Sam. vi. 2, with which we have already dealt, and which refers to the fetching of the ark out of obscurity in David's reign. If these texts can be relied upon they carry back the existence of the idea of the cherubim-throne in Israel at least to the time when Shiloh was the central shrine of the amphictyony.

24; Ezek. xxviii. 16. For the origin of the name of the cherubim in Babylonian intercessory deities see E. Dhorme, 4 Le nom des chérubins', Recueil Édouard Dhorme, Paris, 1 9 5 1 , pp. 671-683. This, however, says nothing about whence Israel derived the idea of these creatures, and how they were conceived and interpreted. A . S. Kapelrud ('The Gates of Hell and the Guardian Angels of Paradise', J AO S 70, 1950, pp. 1 5 1 - 1 5 6 ) , seeks to trace back a belief in the cherubim, as the guardians of the divine throne, to Sumerian door-divinities.

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God and Temple by Ronald Ernest Clements

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