This ebook is meant to provide causes of why tube gear occasionally fails and what to do approximately it. Discussions of catastrophic and degenerative mess ups; settling on tubes and tube varieties and checking out and predicting tube functionality.
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This is particularly troublesome in circuits which have a very high grid resistance and depend upon this for tube bias. Emission current, from the exposed ends of the heater, either at the folds, or at their ends, may go directly to the grid side rods. This form of hum will frequently be combined with and difficult to distinguish from heater-to-cathode leakage hum. A relatively simple test is to ground the grid at the socket. If the hum disappears, it is being picked up on the grid. Heater-to-grid is not the only method by which hum can be introduced into the grid circuit.
It them becomes almost impossible to 48 measure a specific tube in terms of its susceptibility to microphonics. Some effort has been made to analyze the spectrum response when a vacuum tube is stimulated by a sharp impact. Although there is a correlation between tubes that are very tight and those that have very little output at any audio frequency, the fact also remains that many tubes having relatively high outputs at certain specific frequencies do not appear to be microphonic. Apparently the mechanical stimulation they encounter does not fall into that portion of the spectrum.
Heater-to-cathode leakage increases sharply with age. 32 why the neon-bulb leakage testers in the ordinary field tube testers provide little evidence of the true insulation conditions of the heater. There are tests for this condition which do correlate, but they will be discussed in more detail later. INTERFACE RESISTANCE Ordinary receiving tubes, as they are so often miscalled these days, were designed to operate in circuits where normal amounts of cathode current are drawn, more or less continuously, over long periods of time.
Getting the Most Out of Vacuum Tubes by Tomer