By Macdougall, William

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2000). tected or sacred values Morality and ethics Ethical or moral considerations also play an important role in risk evaluation (Böhm & Pfister, 2000; Pfister & Böhm, 2001). They essentially imply adherence to principles concerning which behaviours are morally right or wrong. Moral philosophy usually contrasts consequentialist and deontological principles. The distinctive idea of deontological principles is that the focus is on the inherent rightness or wrongness of the act per se. Deontological principles refer to morally mandated actions or prohibitions, such as the duty to keep promises or the duty to not harm nature, irrespective of the consequences.

1. Questionnaire studies Questionnaire studies aim to describe behaviours and to gather people’s perceptions, opinions, attitudes and beliefs about different issues. They are also widely used to establish relationships between two or more variables. For example, by asking people how often they engage in littering and how satisfied they are with the amount of garbage bins in their neighbourhood a relationship can be established between both variables. e. confound) has caused the relationship. g.

G. g. g. sadness). Reprinted from Böhm, G. (2003), Emotional reactions to environmental risks: consequentialist versus ethical evaluation. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 199–212, with permission of Elsevier. Chapter 8). g. earthquakes) are generally weaker than those to hazards that are caused by humans. 6 SUMMARY Examining how people perceive environmental hazards and technologies is crucial for understanding their reactions to particular risks. The aim of this chapter was to give an overview of prominent factors that are proposed in research and theory to 24 ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION determine environmental risk perception.

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Fundamentals of Psychology by Macdougall, William


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