By Arvind Kumar Misra

ISBN-10: 8186535705

ISBN-13: 9788186535707

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Additional info for Fundamentals of Cell and Molecular Genetics

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It has been found that some species of mRNA undergo modification of nucleotide sequence post-transcriptionally. This has been called as RNA editing. For example, the gene apo-B produces two different proteins. The protein produced in the liver contains 4565 residues while the one produced in intestines contains only 2153 residues. This happens due to editing of mRNA of this gene in the intestines where the codon CAA is altered to UAA, leading to early termination of protein synthesis and production of a truncated protein.

Transcription is almost a day to day activity in the cell and is the most common level for regulating gene expression. Therefore, the protein machinery required for carrying out this activity is also amenable to regulation of gene expression. Hence this machinery is complex and varied. The smallest unit of transcription may be called as Transcripton. It would include a site of initiation of transcription, the region of elongation and the site for termination of transcription. However, one transcripton need not correspond to one gene.

Subsequently, Part of the transcribed viral RNA is degraded releasing single stranded transcribed DNA. It is then able to anneal to the 3‟ end of the viral RNA. This in affect is a template switch. Subsequent transcription occurs along the 3‟ to 5‟ direction of the viral RNA. The degradation of the original viral RNA is accomplished by RNase H activity. This generates small fragments of RNA, some of which are rich in purine bases. They act as primers for copying the newly transcribed DNA. The infecting virions contain all the requisites for successful reverse transcription except the dNTPs which are drawn from the pool of the host cell.

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Fundamentals of Cell and Molecular Genetics by Arvind Kumar Misra

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