This ebook offers the 1st English translation of Candrakirti's statement (ca. 6-7th century C.E.) on 4 illusions that hinder humans from changing into Buddhas. Lang's translation captures the readability of Candrakirti's arguments and the energetic humor of the tales and examples he makes use of. Lang's advent explores the diversity of Candrakirti's pursuits in faith, philosophy, psychology, politics, and erotic poetry.
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Additional resources for Four Illusions: Candrakirti's Advice for Travelers on the Bodhisattva Path
Candrakirti’s rejection of philosophical propositions does not indicate his ignorance of the rules that determine whether one side or another prevails in debate. He knows the formal criteria set down in the works of the Buddhist logicians and in the manuals of the Brahmanical Nyaya school for judging the soundness of an argument. He uses these criteria to demonstrate the technical ﬂaws in his opponents’ inferences and arguments. 8–9). 15 An unproven reason cannot prove any proposition. Whether this opponent’s response is interpreted as a logical fallacy or as a futile rejoinder, as the Indian logician B.
Candrakirti asserts that exceptional practitioners (arya) regard things that appear real to ordinary people as merely conventionally true; they perceive the emptiness of those things as ultimate truth (MA 108). 22 The Audience for Candrakirti’s Work Candrakirti’s work was composed and preserved in monastic circles and even now forms part of the curriculum in Tibetan Buddhist monasteries. The audience for his commentary, like those Paul Griﬃths describes as the ideal readers of the Vijñanavada philosopher, Sthiramati (ca.
One kind of immortality (‘above the navel’), spiritual immortality, is destroyed by the birth of a son and the consequent ties to the world of samsara,” Wendy Doniger O’Flaherty points out, but “the other kind of immortality (‘below the navel’), physical immortality, is assured by the birth of a son to perform 1raddha rites” (1980a, 4). The Brhadaranyaka Upanisad and other early Upanisads (ca. concentrate on explaining how to achieve spiritual immortality. These texts cast doubt on the eﬃcacy of the two central activities of the Vedic world—oﬀering sacriﬁces and begetting male oﬀspring—which provide only physical immortality.
Four Illusions: Candrakirti's Advice for Travelers on the Bodhisattva Path by Candrakirti