By Bernard C. Kress

ISBN-10: 162841183X

ISBN-13: 9781628411836

ISBN-10: 1628411848

ISBN-13: 9781628411843

Conventional macro-optics should be designed with no advanced layout software program instruments. although, electronic optics, specially wafer-scale micro-optics, require particular software program and instruments. there's usually no analytical resolution, and therefore complicated iterative optimization algorithms should be required. This e-book covers refractive and diffractive micro-optics, the iterative optimization method, and modeling and fabrication recommendations an important to this box. the facility to create hybrid structures in a position to generating analog and electronic performance is additionally addressed

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For example, if the lens aperture is rectangular or hexagonal, the resulting far-field pattern may be rectangular or hexagonal, respectively. Field lens Incoming beam profile Lenslet array Incoming beam profile Output beam profile Free-space propagation into the far field Output beam profile MLAs are used in a multitude of applications: beam shapers and beam homogenizers, light-collection increasers in digital image sensors and LCD projectors, optical fiber array collimators/ couplers, stereoscopic displays, plenoptic cameras, etc.

The following figure shows a same phase profile from which can be derived either a narrow-band diffractive lens (left, shallow fringes with a phase shift of 2p[0]) or a multiorder, broadband diffractive lens (right, deeper fringes with a phase shift of 2p[n2p]). The structures are deeper and wider. Refractive phase profile r01 R01 d0 D0 Conventional DOE D0 = N · d 0 N · r 01 01 {R Harmonic DOE When the design wavelengths are close to each other, the optimal depth may become too deep for fabrication, especially when the lens already has small periods (a fast lens).

Refractive MLAs are often preferred to diffractive MLAs when using broadband illumination to prevent parasitic spectral dispersion and spectral efficiency modulation. Such beam shapers are insensitive to the incoming beam profile, unlike diffractive beam shapers. Pseudo-random microrefractive element arrays can be arranged in a specific way to yield more-complex near-field or farfield intensity patterns (beam shapers). Such pseudo-lens arrays are usually called engineered diffusers and operate over a very wide spectral bandwidth, unlike diffractive beam shapers.

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Field guide to digital micro-optics by Bernard C. Kress

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