By Christopher Gravett
The straightforward castles raised after the Norman conquest have been constructed all through eleventh and twelfth centuries, when the creation of Islamic and Byzantine fortification strategies from the past due twelfth century resulted in extra advancements in fortress structure. those fortifications have been to be good established in the course of the process the thirteenth century as England used to be riven by way of the clash, characterised via lengthy sieges, among the monarchy and strong magnates. in addition to delivering the point of interest for war, castles more and more turned the centres in their groups, supplying a extra everlasting base for the lord, his kinfolk and retainers, in addition to performing as centres for justice and management.
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Extra info for English castles, 1200-1300
T h e towers either side could be used to house porters and guards in time of peace, while garrison t r o o p s could use them to rush out on anyone breaching the defences. Some have loopholes opening into the passage as well as on to the outside. The barbican A barbican is a forework built in front of a gate to protect it. Occasionally of timber, only a small number of stone examples survive in Britain. T h e rebuilding of O x f o r d Castle after the siege of 1 2 1 6 resulted in a D-shaped barbican being built, the ditch sides revetted in clay (gravelly soil).
Henry refused to leave in order to attend his daughter's wedding at Windsor and the marriage took place in the siege lines at Kenilworth. Siege engines were set up on the north, south and east sides because of the width of the lake elsewhere and catapults began to b o m b a r d the fortifications as best they could. T h e defenders replied by lobbing missiles at the enemy catapults, which we are assured frequently collided in midair with those of the besiegers. W h e n this b o m b a r d m e n t proved relatively ineffective an assault was sent across the dry ditch but this had no more success than had the barrage.
If curtain palisades were rebuilt in stone, service r o o m s might be m o v e d against t h e m , as at Sandal, w h i c h h a d a late 1 2 t h - o r early 1 3 t h - c e n t u r y m a l t h o u s e with kiln for drying the c o r n , overlaid in the first half o f the 1 3 t h century with a n e w single-storey kitchen ( a b o u t 1 0 . 4 x 9 . 4 m ) with b a k e h o u s e t o the w e s t a n d larder t o the east. All had hearths (including unusually the l a r d e r ) , and the kitchen hearth h a d post holes presumably for spit supports.
English castles, 1200-1300 by Christopher Gravett