By Cicero, Walter Miller
Cicero (Marcus Tullius, 106–43 BCE), Roman legal professional, orator, flesh presser and thinker, of whom we all know greater than of the other Roman, lived during the stirring period which observed the increase, dictatorship, and demise of Julius Caesar in a tottering republic. In his political speeches specially and in his correspondence we see the thrill, stress and intrigue of politics and the half he performed within the turmoil of the time. Of approximately 106 speeches, brought ahead of the Roman humans or the Senate in the event that they have been political, earlier than jurors if judicial, fifty eight continue to exist (a few of them incompletely). within the fourteenth century Petrarch and different Italian humanists stumbled on manuscripts containing greater than 900 letters of which greater than 800 have been written via Cicero and approximately a hundred by way of others to him. those find the money for a revelation of the fellow all of the extra extraordinary simply because such a lot weren't written for e-book. Six rhetorical works live to tell the tale and one other in fragments. Philosophical works comprise seven extant significant compositions and a few others; and a few misplaced. there's additionally poetry, a few unique, a few as translations from the Greek. The Loeb Classical Library version of Cicero is in twenty-nine volumes.
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Additional info for Cicero, Volume XXI. On Duties (De Officiis): De Officiis (Loeb Classical Library No. 30)
Cicero's definifion must have followed here, something' like Omne igitur, quod ratione actum est officium appellamus Unger. ^ conformari Edd. confirmari MSS. e. fortified). ' ; ; ; ; 8 BOOK I. ii-iii schools should claim to be consistent, they could not say anything about duty ; and no fixed, invariable, natural rules of duty can be posited except by those say that moral goodness is worth seeking solely Accordingly, the teachits own sake. ing of ethics is the pecuhar right of the Stoics, the Academicians, and the Peripatetics for the theories of Aristo, Pyrrho, and Erillus have been long since rejected; and yet they would have the right to discuss duty if they had left us any power of choosing between things, so that there might be a way of fmding out what duty is.
Moreover, all our thought and mental activity will be devoted either to planning for things that are morally right and that conduce to a good and happy Ufe, or to the pursuits of science With this we and learning. close the discussion of the first source of duty. VII. Of the three remainlng divisions, the most extensive in its application is the principle by which society and what we may call its common bonds" are maintained. Of this again there are two divisions of tlie called — in which is the crowning glory and on the basis of which men are ^justice, virtues good men"; and, close akin to justice, 21 B.
In my opinion, at least, we should always strive to secure a peace that shall not admit scians, ; — of guile. this point, — And if my advice had been heeded on we should still have at least some sort of constitutional government, if not the best in the world, whereas, as it is, we have none at all. Not only must we show consideration for those whom we have conquered by force of arms but we must also ensure protection to those who lay down their arms and throw themselves upon the mercy of our generals, even though the battering-ram has hammered at their walls.
Cicero, Volume XXI. On Duties (De Officiis): De Officiis (Loeb Classical Library No. 30) by Cicero, Walter Miller