By Pertti Saariluoma

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213). In contrast to this rhetoric, here we emphasize the discontinuity introduced by the transformation of the new tool into a theory of mind. The New Mind What was later called the "new mental chemistry" pictured the mind as a computer program: The atoms of this mental chemistry are symbols, which are combinable into larger and more complex associational structures called lists and list structures. The fundamental "reactions" of the mental chemistry employ elementary information processes that operate upon symbols and symbol structures: copying symbols, storing symbols, retrieving symbols, inputting and outputting symbols, and comparing symbols.

The symbol-manipulating nature of the computer was important to Simon because it corresponded to some of his earlier views on the nature of intelligence: The metaphor I'd been using, of a mind as something that took some premises and ground them up and processed them into conclusions, began to transform itself into a notion that a mind was something which took some program inputs and data and had some processes which operated on the data and produced output, (cited in McCorduck, 1979, p. 127) It is interesting to note that 20 years after seeing the computer as a symbolmanipulating device, Newell and Simon came forth with the explicit hypothesis that a physical symbol system is necessary and sufficient for intelligence.

First, in everyday language, words like probable legitimately have several meanings, just as "if. . then" and "or" constructions do. The particular meaning seems to be automatically cued by content and context. Second, statisticians similarly have alternative views of what probability is about. In the context of some subjectivist theories, choosing Alternative b truly violates the rules of probability; but for a frequentist, judgments of single events such as in the Linda problem have nothing to do with probability theory: As the statistician G.

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Chess and Content Oriented Psychology of Thinking by Pertti Saariluoma

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