By Nigel D. Browning, Stephen J. Pennycook
This can be a transparent and up to date account of the appliance of electron-based microscopies to the research of high-Tc superconductors. Written via best specialists, this compilation offers a entire overview of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy, including info of every approach and its purposes. Introductory chapters disguise the fundamentals of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, together with a bankruptcy dedicated to specimen education innovations and microanalysis via scanning transmission electron microscopy. resulting chapters study id of latest superconducting compounds, imaging of superconducting houses by way of low-temperature scanning electron microscopy, imaging of vortices by means of electron holography and digital constitution selection by means of electron power loss spectroscopy. using scanning tunneling microscopy for exploring floor morphology, progress tactics and the mapping of superconducting service distributions is usually mentioned. ultimate chapters think about purposes of electron microscopy to the research of grain limitations, skinny motion pictures and gadget constructions. specified references are integrated. This e-book will curiosity graduate scholars and researchers in condensed subject physics and fabric technology.
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Extra info for Characterization of high Tc materials and devices by electron microscopy
An external magnetic ®eld of up to 150 G was applied horizontally. 18] is shown in Fig. 12. In this interference micrograph, projected magnetic lines of force can be observed. Fig. 10. Schematic diagram of the magnetic domain structure in a cobalt particle. Fig. 11. Schematic diagram for vortex lattice observation. 34 A. Tonomura Fig. 12. Interference micrograph of a superconducting Nb ®lm at B 100 G (phase ampli®cation: 316). These lines become dense in the localized regions indicated by circles in the photograph, which correspond to individual vortices.
16] is shown in Fig. 8. Here, magnetic ®elds leak from the north pole at the top of the particle and are then sucked up at the south pole. The particle can therefore be seen to have a single magnetic domain. Because the electron phase shift is produced not only due to magnetic ®elds but also due to changes in the specimen thickness, magnetic lines of force can be directly observed through an interference micrograph only for specimens whose thickness is uniform. A three-dimensional magnetic domain structure therefore cannot be determined from an interference micrograph.
9. Interference micrographs of a dodecahedron cobalt particle (phase ampli®cation: 32); (a) thickness contour map; (b) magnetic lines of force. Holography in the transmission electron microscope 33 rotate along the common side of the ®ve regular tetrahedrons forming a particle like that shown in Fig. 10. 21]. In the experiments we conducted, a superconductive thin ®lm was tilted with respect to both the electron beam and the magnetic ®eld. The experimental arrangement is shown in Fig. 11. A Nb thin ®lm, set on a low-temperature stage, was tilted 458 to an incident beam of 300 kV electrons so that the electrons could be in¯uenced by vortex magnetic ®elds.
Characterization of high Tc materials and devices by electron microscopy by Nigel D. Browning, Stephen J. Pennycook