By Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schulze, Dr.-Ing. Malte Homann (auth.)

ISBN-10: 3642738583

ISBN-13: 9783642738586

ISBN-10: 3642738605

ISBN-13: 9783642738609

The publication treats the C -hydrocarbons and their secondary items as a contribution four to chemical engineering economics, utilizing this box of training and study to the technical approaches for making and processing this staff of goods, so very important to the chemical undefined. As early as tpe Fifties the then director of the Institute for Technical Chemistry of the Berlin Technical collage, Professor Herbert Kolbel, took the' initiative within the area of Chemical Engineering Economics and started systematic stories of undertaking Engineering and price Estimation in reference to chemical vegetation. He additionally all started a direction on technical chemical strategies in 1966. houses, construction tactics, plant apparatus, and in addition the makes use of of technically attention-grabbing items are the valuable positive factors of Chemical know-how. the knowledge is to be present in the big encyclopedias of Technical Chemistry. nonetheless, Chemical Engineering Economics bargains with the entire monetary stipulations of utilization of the uncooked fabrics, chances of using co-products, and the combination of those items into yes creation programmes, from the stand­ aspect of the chemical and technical basics of the methods. extra vital viewpoints are the prices of the goods, taking into account very important and variable impacts on those bills, the placement and improvement of the marketplace for the goods and, of accelerating value, additionally the ecological worldwide stipulations for deciding to buy uncooked fabrics and the creation and advertising of the actual products.

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Example text

38]. 39]. Numerous procedures for preparing mixtures of methanol and higher alcohols, including butanols, are presently under development (so-called fuel methanol). 40]. 14; the large fraction of C4 -alcohols is noteworthy. 14. 41] Component weight % C) alcohol C2 alcohol C3 alcohol C4 alcohol Csalcohol ketones and aldehydes water 68-72 2-3 3-5 10-15 7-12 max. 2 max. 5 bar. 42]. 43]. Despite its advantages (no hydrogen needed, favourable n: i ratio) the procedure has found only a single operator, Japan Butanol (30,000 tla).

No secondary processes using pure 2-butenes are known so that it is better to separate first i-butane and then I-butene in two successive fractionations. 30]. Krupp-Koppers is running a pilot plant in Essen for extractive distillation of C4 components from various C4 -streams. By means of the extraction agent Butenex it was possible to separate raffinate I into the fractions butaneslbutenes , and raffinate II into butanes/l-butenel2-butene. trans-2-Butene can be largely separated from nbutane but it is not possible to separate i-butene and I-butene.

This was developed by Ruhrchemie in 1938, and involves treating propene with about equimolar amounts of carbon monoxide and hydrogen on metalcarbonyl catalysts at 90 to 180°C and 25 to 350 bar. This yields a mixture of the butanals; the ratio of n-: i-isomers can be regulated from 1: 1 to 20: 1 by choice of catalyst and reaction conditions. 36]: or CH 3 ....... CH-CHO CH3/ The yield is 90 to 98%. The highest possible proportion of n-butanal is aimed to match existing consumption patterns. Recently this has been accomplished with modified Rh-catalysts at low pressure.

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C4-Hydrocarbons and Derivatives: Resources, Production, Marketing by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Joachim Schulze, Dr.-Ing. Malte Homann (auth.)


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