By Alexander L. Kaufman
The medieval outlaws of england retain a carry at the present-day mind's eye, judging via their presence in literature and on movie. Exploring the character of either old and fictional outlaws, those twelve severe essays survey the literary, ancient, and cultural environments that produced them, particularly the medieval and early smooth classes. Divided into 3 components, the textual content examines the historic files of genuine outlawed women and men and the illustration of Jews in medieval Britain as attainable outlaws, outlaws linked particularly with Wales, and the preferred determine of Robin Hood and the context of the past due medieval poems and performs that function him as a trendy determine.
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Additional resources for British Outlaws of Literature and History : Essays on Medieval and Early Modern Figures From Robin Hood to Twm Shon Catty
Take two addict-criminals convicted of selling relatively small amounts of cocaine on a number of separate occasions. Each has once before been convicted of illegal possession of marijuana. Toward a Comprehensive Punishment System 33 Each is aged 20. Criminal A is in college, the son of a loving and supportive middle-class family, living in a district where space is available in drug treatment programs. Criminal B has never met his putative father, lives in a high-rise apartment in a slum area with his mother and his two much younger siblings, welfare being their major financial support.
Judges had little-fettered discretion to "individualize punishment" in deciding who received probation and who was sentenced to jail or prison, and, for those to be confined, to set minimum or maximum terms, and sometimes both. Parole boards, subject only to statutory provisions on parole eligibility, generally when a third of the maximum term had been served, decided who was released from prison prior to the expiration of their terms, when, and under what conditions. None of these decisions—charging and plea bargaining, sentencing, paroling—was governed by legal or administrative decision Toward a Comprehensive Punishment System 21 rules and only rarely did these decisions raise issues cognizable in the appellate courts.
Until recently, policymakers have shied from efforts to structure discretion over nonimprisonment sentencing decisions because of the complexity of the practical, conceptual, and implementation issues that are raised. We believe the tools now exist for addressing these issues. Americans tend to equate criminal punishment with prison. To the public, to the public official, even to the judge, sentencing is often seen as a choice between prison and nearly nothing. Researchers build mathematical models of the correlates of decisions to imprison and of variations in lengths of imprisonment, but not of variations in the imposition of sanctions other than prison.
British Outlaws of Literature and History : Essays on Medieval and Early Modern Figures From Robin Hood to Twm Shon Catty by Alexander L. Kaufman