By Zoran Rumboldt et al. (eds.)
So much imaging books are ordered in keeping with underlying etiology. although, in genuine lifestyles scientific perform, radiologists often make their differential diagnoses in line with the picture styles, because the etiology is frequently unknown. mind Imaging with CT and MRI provides over a hundred and eighty illness tactics and common variations, grouping entities by way of those easy styles to intensify differential diagnostic good points. prime quality CT and MRI scans exhibit a number of standard and distinguishing photographs for every entity. universal and weird scientific situations are defined, together with dilated perivascular areas, capillary teleangiectasia, Susac's syndrome and desmoplastic childish ganglioglioma. either easy and complicated imaging ideas are used, reflecting the truth of medical perform. This image-focused e-book emphasises the main pertinent medical info suitable to the diagnostic method. Trainee and practicing radiologists will locate mind Imaging with CT and MRI a useful and clinically proper device for studying and educating.
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Extra resources for Brain Imaging with MRI and CT: An Image Pattern Approach
3. Zuccoli G, Siddiqui N, Bailey A, Bartoletti SC. Neuroimaging findings in pediatric Wernicke encephalopathy: a review. Neuroradiology 2010;52:523–9. 4. Zuccoli G, Pipitone N. Neuroimaging findings in acute Wernicke’s encephalopathy: review of the literature. AJR 2009;192:501–8. 5. Sechi G, Serra A. Wernicke’s encephalopathy: new clinical settings and recent advances in diagnosis and management. Lancet Neurol 2007;6:442–55. 29 Brain Imaging with MRI and CT, ed. Zoran Rumboldt et al. Published by Cambridge University Press.
Differential Diagnosis Artery of Percheron Infarction • bilateral medial thalamic and rostral mesencephalic lesions Deep Venous Thrombosis (11) • symmetric thalamic lesions with possible extension and hemorrhage • high T1 signal of intraluminal clot in the internal cerebral veins • filling defect on contrast-enhanced images and absence of flow on MRV/CTV Encephalitis; Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (112) • usually also multifocal involvement of the gray and white matter • usually patchy and asymmetric Extrapontine Osmotic Myelinolysis (66) • often associated with central pontine involvement (central pontine myelinolysis) • external capsule, putamen and caudate nucleus often affected • osmotic myelinolysis and WE may coexist Primary CNS Lymphoma (158) • usually low to isointense T2 signal • mass effect, avid enhancement, surrounding vasogenic edema Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) • spinal cord and optic nerve involvement Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (7) • • • • acutely thalamic increased T2 signal, normal to decreased T1 signal usually T2 hyperintensity in (perirolandic) cortical areas low ADC in the acute phase T1 hyperintensity around the posterior limb of the internal capsule later on Leigh Disease (10) • thalamus, basal ganglia and brainstem involved • low ADC in the acute phase Krabbe Disease/Lysosomal Genetic Defects (9) • decreased T2 and increased T1 signal of the thalamus Background Although alcoholism is a common predisposing factor for the development of WE, the disease can also be caused by malignancy, total parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, prolonged vomiting, hemodialysis, diarrhea, magnesium depletion, unbalanced nutrition, and infections.
Patients with juvenile (onset at 2–6 years) and adult (onset at 10–40 years) forms usually exhibit a slower progression of the disease with dysarthria, extrapyramidal dysfunction, dementia, psychosis, and depression. Differential Diagnosis Krabbe Disease • dentate nuclei usually involved while signal abnormality in the basal ganglia is lacking • white matter disease does not spare the corpus callosum • presence of optic nerve enlargement and cranial nerve/spinal roots enhancement Fucosidosis • additional T2 hypointensity and T1 hyperintensity of the globi pallidi Status Marmoratus • hyperdense thalami on CT • white matter signal changes associated with global brain atrophy Toluene Toxicity • • • • diffuse atrophy loss of differentiation between the gray and white matter T2 hypointensity may also involve basal ganglia older patients (teenagers, adults) Background GM2 gangliosidoses are rare lysosomal storage disorders caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the genes encoding b-hexosaminidase A and/or B, and GM2 activator glycoprotein.
Brain Imaging with MRI and CT: An Image Pattern Approach by Zoran Rumboldt et al. (eds.)