By Alex Ward

ISBN-10: 0750687436

ISBN-13: 9780750687430

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E. in the form of an ion)? What is the advantage of iontophoresis for application of medication? 4(a). 4(b), are applied transcutaneously? For transcutaneous nerve stimulation, body tissue can be modelled by the resistor/ capacitor combination shown below. cm2. The subcutaneous resistance is typically around 200 Ω. Sinusoidal AC with an amplitude of 20V is applied between A and B using 1 cm2 electrodes. 6 (a) Calculate the impedance of the capacitor at AC frequencies of: * 50 Hz * 500 Hz * 5 kHz.

By contrast, ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF NERVE AND MUSCLE 87 if short duration pulses are used, much larger changes in intensity will be needed to recruit motor and pain fibres. 10b). Short duration pulses will also be capable of producing an effective motor response with minimum pain sensation. It is for this reason that modern electronic stimulators produce higher voltage, shorter duration pulses than their predecessors. A question arising from the foregoing discussion is whether very short pulses, around 2 to 10 µs duration, will give better discrimination with transcutaneous stimulation than, say, 20 µs pulses.

Since Z decreases appreciably with increasing frequency, the potential difference across Rs will correspondingly increase. Question 5: What is the potential difference across Rs at frequencies of (a) 50 Hz, (b) 500 Hz and (c) 5 kHz for an applied potential difference of 50 V? Use the values of Z and Rs calculated previously assuming an electrode area of 10 cm2. Information: Accurate calculation of the potential difference across Rs requires complex number algebra, but a good first-approximation can be made by treating the impedances as simple resistances in series.

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Biophysical Bases of Electrotherapy by Alex Ward

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