By Michael T. Nietzel, Richard A. Winett, Marian L. MacDonald, Arnold P. Goldstein and Leonard Krasner (Auth.)

ISBN-10: 0080203760

ISBN-13: 9780080203768

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Additional resources for Behavioral Approaches to Community Psychology

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Following this review is a summary of the principles and problems suggested by the literature. This review should provide a rich empirical foundation for persons working in a variety of school settings. The status of behavioral approaches to educational problems warrants an initial caveat. The studies reviewed in this chapter are essentially demonstrations of functional relationships. They are not programs. While the program designer now has a vast research literature to use as a basis for structuring programs, it remains unclear how either the outside change agent or the researcher gains entry to schools to implement programs or how internal change agents function (Reppucci & Saunders, 1974).

Congruent with the themes of practicality and promotion of change in large groups is the development of films that depict alternative ways of behaving. While the use of modeling techniques has gained wide currency in other areas, there have been few studies that have evaluated experimentally the impact of films or other modeling media in classrooms. Unfortunately, a study (O'Connor, 1969) with wide implications for these issues has not received systematic follow-up. Nursery school children who were very socially withdrawn were assigned to experimental and control groups.

In an early study, Lovitt and Curtiss( 1969) found that a 12-year-old pupil in a class for children with behavior disorders performed at higher academic rates when he arranged the contingency requirements rather than the teacher specifying them. A subsequent study with the same pupil indicated that his higher rate of performance was not related to the magnitude of reinforcement but to the person serving as contingency manager. PROBLEMS IN THE SCHOOLS 19 Glynn (1970) used four heterogenously grouped classes of ninth-grade girls to examine the effects of experimenter-determined, self-determined, and chancedetermined token reinforcement systems compared to a no-token control.

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Behavioral Approaches to Community Psychology by Michael T. Nietzel, Richard A. Winett, Marian L. MacDonald, Arnold P. Goldstein and Leonard Krasner (Auth.)


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