By Daniel G. Bobrow
This significant number of brief essays stories the scope and development of study in man made intelligence during the last 20 years. Seminal and most-cited papers from the magazine synthetic Intelligence are revisited by way of the authors who describe how their examine has been built, either via themselves and through others, because the journals first publication.The twenty-eight papers span a wide selection of domain names, together with fact maintainance structures and qualitative method thought, chemical constitution research, prognosis of defective circuits, and figuring out visible scenes; in addition they span a vast variety of methodologies, from AI's mathematical foundations to platforms architecture.The quantity is devoted to Allen Newell and concludes with a bit of fourteen essays dedicated to a retrospective at the power and imaginative and prescient of his work.Sections/Contributors:- synthetic Intelligence in standpoint, D. G. Bobrow.- Foundations. J. McCarthy, R. C. Moore, A. Newell, N. J. Nilsson, J. Gordon and E. H. Shortliffe, J. Pearl, A. okay. Mackworth and E. C. Freuder, J. de Kleer.- imaginative and prescient. H. G. Barrow and J. M. Tenenbaum, B. ok. P. Horn and B. Schunck, okay. Ikeuchi, T. Kanade.- Qualitative Reasoning. J. de Kleer, ok. D. Forbus, B. J. Kuipers, Y. Iwasake and H. A Simon.- analysis. R. Davis, M. R. Genesereth, P. Szolovits and S. G. Pauker, R. Davis, B. G. Buchanan and E. H. Shortliffe, W. J. Clancey.- Architectures. J. S. Aikins, B. Hayes-Roth, M. J. Stefik et al.- structures. R. E. Fikes and N. J. Nilsson, E. A Feigenbaum and B. G. Buchanan, J. McDermott. Allen Newell. H. A. Simon, M. J. Stefik and S. W. Smoliar, M. A. Arbib, D. C. Dennett, Purves, R. C. Schank and M. Y. Jona, P. S. Rosenbloom and J. E. Laird, P. E. Agre.
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Extra info for Artificial Intelligence in Perspective
On the other hand, I was quite successful in the strategy of using ceremonial talks to convey general scientific results without benefit of the hard research that should be there to back them up. "The knowledge level" has joined "Symbols and search" and "Physical symbol systems" as some of my more well-known papers. However, some people have told me that "The knowledge level" is rather hard to understand, so these papers may be more technical than I realize (or just badly writtenalways a real possibility).
F. D. Thesis, Medical Information Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (1986). A. Dempster, Commentary on papers by Lane and Cooper, Appi. Stoch. Models Data Anal. 5 (1989) 77-81. J. H. Shortliffe, A method for managing evidential reasoning in a hierarchical hypothesis space, Artif Intel!. 26 (1985)323-357. [51 D. Heckerman, Probabilistic similarity networks, Networks 20 (1990) 607-636. [61 D. Heckerman, E. Horvitz and B. Nathwani, Toward normative expert systems, Part I: the Pathfinder project, Methods mf Med.
Another application of belief networks has been made in Nestor, a hyper- Cop yrigh ted Material 46 J. H. Shortliffe calcemia expert system developed by Cooper . The system utilizes belief networks to represent the pathophysiology of diseases causing hypercalcemia. Causal rules were acquired from medical texts and augmented with the subjective probabilities of an expert. Nestor has been mostly a research, rather than a clinical, tool as opposed to Pathfinder, which has undergone extensive clinical evaluation.
Artificial Intelligence in Perspective by Daniel G. Bobrow