By R. Kingslake

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Extra resources for Applied optics and optical engineering. Vol. I: Light. Its generation and modification

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1 Mechanical Attenuators One the simplest means for attenuating a fiber-based optical field is by micromechanically moving an obstruction into a gap between two cleaved fibers. 15, some of the earliest work in this area showed that this approach could yield attenuation of −57 dB with time constants on the order of 5 ms (Marxer et al. 1999). The inclusion of micromechanical latching structures (Syms et al. 2004a) allows maintenance of a stable attenuation state even when power is removed from the device.

2011). 6 An oil/water-based liquid microlens actuated using a hydrogel. The hydrogel in the water-filled chamber absorbs or expels water as a function of temperature, changing the pressure and thus the meniscus shape of the curved oil/water interface. From Dong et al. (2006). Mechanical Pressure Tuning A number of mechanical actuation mechanisms, with which the pressure on the lens liquid may be varied, have also been employed for tuning liquid lenses. One useful technique has been the use of hydrogels, part of a family of highly hydrophilic polymer networks which can absorb large volumes of water, thereby undergoing significant expansion.

The utility of tunable gratings using deformable substrates has been demonstrated by using Ag nanoparticles to render the nominally transparent PDMS reflecting and stretching the grating mechanically (using a high-precision stepper motor) (Ghisleri et al. 2014). 3 nm steps, the diffractive element was employed in a spectrometer to cover much of the visible wavelength range, 350 ≤ λ ≤ 650 nm. Another interesting application was the use of a grating with periods ranging from 1,000 to 1,500 nm on an 8 × 8 parylene membrane (Kan et al.

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Applied optics and optical engineering. Vol. I: Light. Its generation and modification by R. Kingslake

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