By D. Virgil Alfaro III MD, Peter E. Liggett MD, William F. Mieler MD, Hugo Quiroz-Mercado MD, Rama D. Jager MD MBA FACS, Yasuo Tano MD
A popular staff of retina surgeons offers promising new advancements in age-related macular degeneration, with emphasis at the most vital advances long ago 5 years. content material addresses all elements of administration, together with anatomy, body structure, and pathophysiology; imaging of the macula in age-related macular degeneration; prevention measures and therapy; remedy; and destiny instructions. Abundantly illustrated and beautifully prepared, this ebook serves as an outstanding reference and textbook.
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Additional resources for Age-related macular degeneration : a comprehensive textbook
While laser photocoagulation and transgenic animal models are the most extensively studied, many others have been used and will be discussed briefly. Retinal vein occlusion in primates and pigs has been studied, but the incidence of retinal neovascularization has been low (90,91). Intravitreal injection of V-2 carcinoma cells in rabbits was found to cause retinal neovascularization, but the model has not been extensively used since the neovascularization can take 100 days to develop (92). Retinal detachment and intravitreal injection of fibroblasts in rabbits resulted in retinal neovascularization (93,94).
One would not expect these vessels to make an abrupt regression, which would be expected to increase the amount of ischemia present. However, this growth pattern is analogous to a wound healing response (Fig. 4). There is a strong link between ischemia and VEGF mediated angiogenesis. Patients with ARMD may have decreased blood flow as compared with those who do not have ARMD, but the decrease in blood flow has yet to be firmly linked with a significant amount of ischemia. In addition, the growth patterns of CNV, the regression of active neovascularization later in the disease process, many of the histopathologic findings, and many findings in animal models are not explainable by ischemia.
Majji AB, Hayashi A, Kim HC, et al. Age-related retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch's membrane degeneration in senescence-accelerated mouse. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:3,936-3,942. 105. Kaplan HJ, Leibole MA, Tezel T, et al. Fas ligand (CD95 ligand) controls angiogenesis beneath the retina. Nat Med 1999;5:292-297. 106. Renno RZ, Delori FC, Holzer RA, et al. Photodynamic therapy using Lu-Tex induces apoptosis in vitro, and its effect is potentiated by angiostatin in retinal capillary endothelial cells.
Age-related macular degeneration : a comprehensive textbook by D. Virgil Alfaro III MD, Peter E. Liggett MD, William F. Mieler MD, Hugo Quiroz-Mercado MD, Rama D. Jager MD MBA FACS, Yasuo Tano MD