By Cormac Butler
This functional booklet exhibits the right way to take care of the complex quarter of accounting of economic tools. Containing a major variety of subtle labored examples, the booklet treats this complicated topic in a manner that provides transparent assistance at the topic. In an introductory, debatable review of the topic, the ebook highlights the error that either auditing companies and the accounting common setters are making, and demonstrates the contribution the foreign monetary Reporting criteria have made to the present credits main issue.
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Additional info for Accounting for Financial Instruments
By compromising, and adopting a mixed model approach, the standard setters have created considerable confusion. The rules are very complex and it is this complexity that gives creative accountants the opportunity to mislead shareholders. The accounting profession has responded to creative accounting antics by devising more and more detailed rules. Sometimes, however, these rules are inconsistent, requiring even more rules. In Accounting Foundations 31 a nutshell, the compromising model, which involves showing some assets at market value and others at cost, explains why the accounting standards are as awkward as they are today.
Hedge funds, for instance, use this approach and therefore do not need to tie up resources employing hoards of accountants (unlike their banking counterparts where the accounting rules are quite different, being much more complex). The main problem, however, is that some assets are very difficult to value and so the Profit & Loss account could be very subjective. A huge operational risk facing a lot of banks and hedge funds, for instance, is that complex financial instruments are given too high a value on the balance sheet.
The rules on impairment are often counter-intuitive to what a non-accountant would expect, and may indeed have contributed to the credit crises that the financial markets faced in late 2007/early 2008. The problem is that banks are forced to underestimate losses they make on loans. For instance, if a borrower agrees a rate of Libor + 2% on a £1,000,000 loan for five years, but within a few months the credit quality of the borrower deteriorates so that it can only borrow at Libor + 8%, the bank has clearly made a loss on the loan of approximately 30% (the difference in the credit spread 6%×5 years).
Accounting for Financial Instruments by Cormac Butler