By Michael Quinten
A one-stop, concise advisor on picking and measuring skinny movie thickness through optical methods.
This functional publication covers the legislation of electromagnetic radiation and interplay of sunshine with subject, in addition to the idea and perform of thickness dimension, and glossy purposes. In so doing, it indicates the functions and possibilities of optical thickness selection and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of size units besides their overview methods.
Following an creation to the subject, bankruptcy 2 provides the fundamentals of the propagation of sunshine and different electromagnetic radiation in area and topic. the most subject of this e-book, the choice of the thickness of a layer in a layer stack through measuring the spectral reflectance or transmittance, is taken care of within the following 3 chapters. the colour of skinny layers is mentioned in bankruptcy 6. ultimately, in bankruptcy 7, the writer discusses numerous business functions of the layer thickness size, together with high-reflection and anti-reflection coatings, photolithographic structuring of semiconductors, silicon on insulator, obvious conductive motion pictures, oxides and polymers, skinny movie photovoltaics, and seriously doped silicon.
Aimed at business and educational researchers, engineers, builders and brands inquisitive about all components of optical layer and skinny optical movie size and metrology, procedure regulate, real-time tracking, and applications.
Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–5):
Chapter 2 Propagation of sunshine and different Electromagnetic Waves (pages 7–57):
Chapter three Spectral Reflectance and Transmittance of a Layer Stack (pages 59–80):
Chapter four The Optical dimension (pages 81–119):
Chapter five Thin?Film Thickness decision (pages 121–140):
Chapter 6 the colour of skinny motion pictures (pages 141–147):
Chapter 7 purposes (pages 149–185):
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Additional info for A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films
25. The optical constants are taken from Ref. . As the imaginary part e2 of the dielectric function is zero and hence also k ¼ 0 for all wavelengths in this wavelength range, this material is transparent. The high refractive index of n > 2 results from strong interband transitions in the UV spectral range that can be described by harmonic oscillators (Brendel oscillators). Si3N4 is often used as antireﬂective coating for silicon wafer in photovoltaics or as hard coat for protection of surfaces.
Another selected example is the metal Al. An outstanding property of this metal is that its dielectric function can be approximated rather well by a Drude dielectric constant for free electrons, and it also exhibits an interband transition around 800 nm wavelength. 27a. 27b exhibits a maximum in the real part n and a dip in the imaginary part k. Nevertheless, the low n and high k leads to an almost constant high reﬂectance with R > 90% except a dip around 825 nm caused by the interband transition.
6. That means the planes of constant phase and the planes of constant amplitude are perpendicular to each other. This kind of waves is called evanescent wave. The attenuation constant c depends upon the angle of incidence a and the refractive indices n1 and n2: c¼ Á1=2 2p À 2 : n sin2 aÀn21 l 2 ð2:55Þ For a ¼ aC, it is c ¼ 0, and for 0 a < aC, it becomes purely imaginary, so that the wave is not attenuated in z-direction but corresponds to a radiating wave, as expected from Snells law. These evanescent waves from total internal reﬂection exhibit a peculiarity with respect to the polarization.
A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films by Michael Quinten